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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 149120, 11 pages
Research Article

The Uptake Mechanism of Cd(II), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) by Mycelia and Fruiting Bodies of Galerina vittiformis

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar 575 025, India

Received 15 August 2013; Revised 21 October 2013; Accepted 22 October 2013

Academic Editor: Kannan Pakshirajan

Copyright © 2013 Dilna Damodaran et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Optimum concentrations of heavy metals like copper, cadmium, lead, chromium, and zinc in soil are essential in carrying out various cellular activities in minimum concentrations and hence help in sustaining all life forms, although higher concentration of these metals is lethal to most of the life forms. Galerina vittiformis, a macrofungus, was found to accumulate these heavy metals into its fleshy fruiting body in the order Pb(II) > Cd(II) > Cu(II) > Zn(II) > Cr(VI) from 50 mg/kg soil. It possesses various ranges of potential cellular mechanisms that may be involved in detoxification of heavy metals and thus increases its tolerance to heavy metal stress, mainly by producing organic acids and phytochelatins (PCs). These components help in repairing stress damaged proteins and compartmentalisation of metals to vacuoles. The stress tolerance mechanism can be deduced by various analytical tools like SEM-EDX, FTIR, and LC-MS. Production of two kinds of phytochelatins was observed in the organism in response to metal stress.