BioMed Research International / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Robotic Technologies and Rehabilitation: New Tools for Stroke Patients’ Therapy

Table 1

Upper limb robotic systems classification.


According to the part of the upper
limb on which the therapy is
focused, there are robots specifically designed for:
(1) Unilateral or bilateral shoulder movement
(2) Elbow movement
(3) Wrist movement
(4) Hand movement

According to their mechanical
characteristics, rehabilitation robots can be classified into at least two main groups:
(1) Exoskeleton
(2) Operational machines/end-effectors

According to the control strategy,
robots can be programmed to deliver different exercises. In fact, robotic systems are capable of assisting the motion of the patient in a number of different modes:
(1) Passive movement in which the robotic device
moves the patient’s arm.
(2) Active nonassist mode in which the subject executes the exercise and the robot provides no help.
(3) Active assist mode in which the subject attempts to move, and the robot provides assistance when there are some voluntary but inadequate movements.
(4) Resistive mode when the subject is required to perform an exercise against an antagonist force provided by the robot.
(5) Bimanual exercise in which active movement of the unaffected arm is mirrored by simultaneous active/passive/assistive movement of the affected arm by means of the robotic device.

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