Figure 3: Cytokine-based approaches to augment vasculogenesis. Soluble molecules can be used to promote EPC production or activation from quiescent states in the bone-marrow during recruitment. Circulating EPCs can be targeted to injury sites via chemokines or modified at the cell surface level to promote egress from the circulation to the injury site during cell homing. Within the wound, EPC motility, proliferation, survival, and differentiation can be enhanced with cytokine therapies. Ultimately, a combination of cytokine cocktails, precise control of biochemical gradients, and modification of EPCs themselves may be needed to optimize vasculogenic therapies for clinical use.