Table 2: Histological findings in experimental models of hepatic warm ischemia-reperfusion injury and hepatic steatosis.

AuthorAnimalSteatosis model% steatosisType of steatosisDuration of ischemia  
(mins, type)
Duration of reperfusion (mins)Outcome measuresResults in steatotic livers
(lean livers)

Yamada et al. [38]RatD-C30–60MiS30 (partial)240HIS5 (5)1
Yamada et al. [39]RatD-C30–60MiS30 (partial)24 hoursHIS6 (6)1
Ellett et al. [29]MouseHFD30–60MaS35 (total)24 hoursHIS1.4 ± 0.1 (0.4 ± 0.1)2
Yamagami et al. [30]Rat3CDD40–60MaS45 (total)40 or 180HistoSevere congestion and necrosis
He et al. [31]MouseHFD50–60MaS45 (total)24 hoursHIS1.8 ± 0.2 (0.9 ± 0.1)2
Marsman et al. [40]RatCMDD>60MaS40 (total)24 hoursHisto (% necrosis)37 ± 10 (5 ± 1%)2
Andraus et al. [41]RatPFD>60MaS60 (partial)240Histo Intraparenchymal haemorrhage
Selzner et al. [33]MouseCDD>60Mixed45 or 60 (partial)24 hoursHisto (% necrosis)65 ± 24% (25 ± 12%)2
Caraceni et al. [34]RatCDD>60MaS6030 to 24 hoursHisto Sinusoidal congestion and necrosis
Hakamada et al. [35]RatCDD>60MaS30 or 60 (total)360Histo Sinusoidal congestion and necrosis
Hui et al. [36]RatCDD>70MaS30, 45, or 6060HistoSevere necrosis and haemorrhage
(no morphological change)
Takahashi et al. [37]CanineHFD7–99MaS6024 hoursHisto Sinusoidal congestion and necrosis

CDD: choline-deficient diet; CMDD: choline-methionine-deficient diet; D-C: dextrose with cholesterol; HFD: high-fat diet; HIS: histological injury score; Histo: histology; MaS: macrovesicular steatosis; MiS: microvesicular steatosis; Mixed: presence of both macrovesicular and microvesicular steatosis; PFD: protein-free diet.
No significant difference between steatotic and lean livers; P < 0.05 versus lean livers; no lean group in study.