Figure 8: Schematic diagram illustrating the Nrf2 pathway and other signaling pathways triggered by exposure to mollugin in in OSCCs. Mollugin treatment leads to the activation of the cellular stress-dependent signaling pathways mediated by MAPK activation (ERK, JNK, and p38) and subsequent transcription factor activation (NF-κB and Nrf2). Ultimately, these transcription factors result in altered gene expression to produce cytoprotective gene HO-1, allowing lead to apoptosis.