Figure 5: CD pathogenesis and autophagy: susceptible CD genes ATG16L1, NOD2, and IRGM are proteins critical for the autophagy process. (a) The process of mammalian autophagy is divided into the following principal steps: initiation, elongation, closure, maturation, and degradation. (b) At the bacterial entry site NOD2 activated by MDP recruit ATG16L1 to the plasma membrane. Follow the assembling of the ATG5-ATG12 complex, stabilized by ATG16L1, that facilitates the formation of an autophagosome around the invading bacterium. (c) IRGM, another autophagy-related gene, could be involved in the final steps of the degradation step.