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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 312656, 12 pages
Review Article

Regulatory Systems in Bone Marrow for Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Mobilization and Homing

1Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER), University of Granada, 18100 Granada, Spain
2Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, 18071 Granada, Spain
3Department of Health Science, University of Jaén, 23071 Jaén, Spain

Received 4 March 2013; Revised 22 April 2013; Accepted 24 May 2013

Academic Editor: Robert Möhle

Copyright © 2013 P. Alvarez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Regulation of hematopoietic stem cell release, migration, and homing from the bone marrow (BM) and of the mobilization pathway involves a complex interaction among adhesion molecules, cytokines, proteolytic enzymes, stromal cells, and hematopoietic cells. The identification of new mechanisms that regulate the trafficking of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) cells has important implications, not only for hematopoietic transplantation but also for cell therapies in regenerative medicine for patients with acute myocardial infarction, spinal cord injury, and stroke, among others. This paper reviews the regulation mechanisms underlying the homing and mobilization of BM hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, investigating the following issues: (a) the role of different factors, such as stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), among other ligands; (b) the stem cell count in peripheral blood and BM and influential factors; (c) the therapeutic utilization of this phenomenon in lesions in different tissues, examining the agents involved in HSPCs mobilization, such as the different forms of G-CSF, plerixafor, and natalizumab; and (d) the effects of this mobilization on BM-derived stem/progenitor cells in clinical trials of patients with different diseases.