Figure 3: BM transmission dynamics and vulnerability. (A) Any cross-border person carrying malaria infection during an incubation period is exposed to multiple bites of Anopheles vectors at multiple locations on or close to the border due to occupational and/or behavioral risks and, vice versa, can spread malaria during a prodromal period until seeking treatment. (B) In MDR-associated BM setting, it is possible that any cross-border person carries geographically prone MDR malaria that can be epidemiologically linked to the ecotypes of Anopheles vectors carrying geographically prone MDR malaria in certain transmission areas on or close to the border.