About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 403491, 12 pages
Research Article

In Vitro Cytotoxicity and In Vivo Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Xanthii Fructus and Its Processed Product

Yunnan University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Kunming, Yunnan 650500, China

Received 27 July 2013; Revised 11 October 2013; Accepted 11 October 2013

Academic Editor: Swaran J. S. Flora

Copyright © 2013 Jie Yu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. E. De Broe, “Chinese herbs nephropathy and balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy,” Kidney International, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 513–515, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. S. Li, “6 poisoning cases induced by xanthii fructus,” People's Military Surgeon, vol. 10, pp. 31–32, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. Turgut, C. C. Alhan, M. Gürgöze et al., “Carboxyatractyloside poisoning in humans,” Annals of Tropical Paediatrics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 125–134, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. W. Q. Su, “Siberian cocklour fruit-induced adverse drug reactions: literature analysis of 95 Cases,” Pharmacy Today, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 44–46, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  5. E. S. Gurley, M. Rahman, M. J. Hossain et al., “Fatal outbreak from consuming xanthium strumarium seedlings during time of food scarcity in northeastern Bangladesh,” PloS one, vol. 5, no. 3, article e9756, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Yu, J. Wang, R. Zhao, Z. Bao, and S. Cai, “Advances in studies of renal adverse reactions of leonurus heterophyllus,” China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1213–1216, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Wang, C. L. Mo, L. Que, G. Zhaori, and J. Yu, “Advances in studies on adverse effects of xanthii fructus,” Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 613–616, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Yu, J. Xie, X. J. Mao et al., “Hepatoxicity of major constituents and extractions of radix polygoni multiflori and radix polygoni multiflori praeparata,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 137, no. 3, pp. 1291–1299, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. Chinese Pharmacopeia Commission, Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, vol. 1, China Medico-Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Beijing, China, 2010.
  10. R. Duo, Y. Chen, Y. H. Liu et al., “Influence of processing on contents of carboxyatractyloside and atractyloside in Xanthii Fructus,” Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 353–356, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  11. D. K. Obatomi, N. T. K. Thanh, S. Brant, and P. H. Bach, “The toxic mechanism and metabolic effects of atractyloside in precision-cut pig kidney and liver slices,” Archives of Toxicology, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 524–530, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. J. Ryan, G. Johnson, J. Kirk, S. M. Fuerstenberg, R. A. Zager, and B. Torok-Storb, “HK-2: an immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell line from normal adult human kidney,” Kidney International, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 48–57, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Koul, S. Fu, and H. Koul, “Oxalate exposure promotes reinitiation of the DNA synthesis and apoptosis of HK-2 cells, a line of human renal epithelial cells,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1010, pp. 292–295, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Ortiz, P. Justo, A. Sanz et al., “Tubular cell apoptosis and cidofovir-induced acute renal failure,” Antiviral Therapy, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 185–190, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. A. Zager, “Polyene antibiotics: relative degrees of in vitro cytotoxicity and potential effects on tubule phospholipid and ceramide content,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 238–249, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. E. M. Scheers, B. Ekwall, and P. J. Dierickx, “In vitro long-term cytotoxicity testing of 27 MEIC chemicals on Hep G2 cells and comparison with acute human toxicity data,” Toxicology in Vitro, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 153–161, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus