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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 408253, 10 pages
Research Article

Endothelial Gene Expression and Molecular Changes in Response to Radiosurgery in In Vitro and In Vivo Models of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations

1Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, 2 Technology Place, North Ryde, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia
2Department of Neurosurgery, The 9th Medical Clinical College of Beijing University, Beijing 100850, China
3Department of Electromagnetic and Laser Biology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100038, China

Received 10 May 2013; Accepted 31 August 2013

Academic Editor: Saulius Butenas

Copyright © 2013 Jian Tu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is limited to 2-year latency. There is no early marker to monitor whether the lesion is responsive to radiosurgery. In this study, we examined endothelial gene expression and molecular changes in response to radiosurgery. Gene expression of E- and P-selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, VCAM-1, tissue factor, and vWF in human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells was quantified by RT-qPCR at different radiation doses and time points. Soluble E- and P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and tissue factor in an animal model of AVMs were quantified by ELISA at different time after radiosurgery. We found that gene expression of E- and P-selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, and VCAM-1 was upregulated by radiation in a dose-dependent manner ( ). Gene expression of E- and P-selectin and ICAM-1 was more sensitive to irradiation than that of PECAM-1 and VCAM-1. Radiosurgery induced gene expression of P-selectin, ICAM-1, PECAM-1, and VCAM-1 was linearly correlated with time ( ). Radiosurgery induced elevation of soluble E- and P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and tissue factor in a rat model of AVMs ( ). Thus, a combination of these molecules measured at different time points may serve as an early predictor of responsiveness of AVMs to radiosurgery.