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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 453978, 4 pages
Clinical Study

What Is the Incidence of Intracranial Bleeding in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury? A Retrospective Study in 3088 Canadian CT Head Rule Patients

1Department of Emergency Medicine, University Hospital Bern (Inselspital), University of Bern, 3010 Bern, Switzerland
2Department of Neurosurgery, Red Cross Hospital, 11526 Athens, Greece

Received 9 April 2013; Accepted 23 June 2013

Academic Editor: Andrew Ducruet

Copyright © 2013 C. E. Albers et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. Only limited data exists in terms of the incidence of intracranial bleeding (ICB) in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Methods. We retrospectively identified 3088 patients (mean age 41 range (7–99) years) presenting with isolated MTBI and GCS 14-15 at our Emergency Department who had undergone cranial CT (CCT) between 2002 and 2011. Indication for CCT was according to the “Canadian CT head rules.” Patients with ICB were either submitted for neurosurgical treatment or kept under surveillance for at least 24 hours. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to correlate the incidence of ICB with age, gender, or intake of coumarins, platelet aggregation inhibitors, or heparins. Results. 149 patients (4.8%) had ICB on CCT. No patient with ICB died or deteriorated neurologically. The incidence of ICB increased with age and intake of anticoagulants without clinically relevant correlation ( ; ; ; ). Conclusion. Our data show an incidence of 4.8% for ICB after MTBI. However, neurological deterioration after MTBI seems to be rare, and the need for neurosurgical intervention is only required in selected cases. The general need for CCT in patients after MTBI is therefore questionable, and clinical surveillance may be sufficient when CCT is not available.