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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 481437, 4 pages
Review Article

Paired Measurements of Paraoxonase 1 and Serum Amyloid A as Useful Disease Markers

1Department of Clinical Laboratory Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke-shi, Tochigi 329-0498, Japan
2Glycation, Oxidation and Disease Laboratory, Touro University-California, Vallejo, CA 94592, USA

Received 30 April 2013; Revised 12 August 2013; Accepted 26 August 2013

Academic Editor: Thomas Schmitz-Rixen

Copyright © 2013 Kazuhiko Kotani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are proteins carried by high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles. Among the HDL-associated protein molecules, SAA, an inflammation-related marker, and PON1, an antioxidant marker, tend to change in relatively clear opposite directions in physiological situations. In clinical chemistry, paired measurements of both markers may provide useful information to understand dysfunctional HDL in diseases with inflammation and oxidative stress conditions. Actually, limited clinical studies have suggested that the combined use of PON1 and SAA may be a tool for observing the pathophysiology of some disease entities. From the findings of experimental studies, PON1 appears to be cooperatively regulated by inflammation- and oxidative stress-related molecules linked with SAA regulation in humans. More studies remain to be performed to ascertain the value of paired measurements of both promising markers in clinical practice.