- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 485196, 10 pages
Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion
Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Avenue, Suite 2349, P.O. Box 245030, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA
Received 30 January 2013; Accepted 16 June 2013
Academic Editor: M. Piacentini
Copyright © 2013 Ian F. Robey and Lance A. Nesbit. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. L. Wike-Hooley, J. Haveman, and H. S. Reinhold, “The relevance of tumour pH to the treatment of malignant disease,” Radiotherapy and Oncology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 343–366, 1984.
- J. R. Griffiths, “Are cancer cells acidic?” The British Journal of Cancer, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 425–427, 1991.
- P. Vaupel, F. Kallinowski, and P. Okunieff, “Blood flow, oxygen and nutrient supply, and metabolic microenvironment of human tumors: a review,” Cancer Research, vol. 49, no. 23, pp. 6449–6465, 1989.
- R. Martínez-Zaguilán, E. A. Seftor, R. E. B. Seftor, Y. Chu, R. J. Gillies, and M. J. C. Hendrix, “Acidic pH enhances the invasive behavior of human melanoma cells,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 176–186, 1996.
- E. K. Rofstad, B. Mathiesen, K. Kindem, and K. Galappathi, “Acidic extracellular pH promotes experimental metastasis of human melanoma cells in athymic nude mice,” Cancer Research, vol. 66, no. 13, pp. 6699–6707, 2006.
- G. A. Turner, “Increased release of tumour cells by collagenase at acid pH: a possible mechanism for metastasis,” Experientia, vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1657–1658, 1979.
- C. Cuvier, A. Jang, and R. P. Hill, “Exposure to hypoxia, glucose starvation and acidosis: effect on invasive capacity of murine tumor cells and correlation with cathepsin (L + B) secretion,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 1997.
- H. Rochefort, “Biological and clinical significance of cathepsin D in breast cancer,” Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 1990.
- J. Rozhin, M. Sameni, G. Ziegler, and B. F. Sloane, “Pericellular pH affects distribution and secretion of cathepsin B in malignant cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 24, pp. 6517–6525, 1994.
- R. A. Gatenby, K. Smallbone, P. K. Maini et al., “Cellular adaptations to hypoxia and acidosis during somatic evolution of breast cancer,” The British Journal of Cancer, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 646–653, 2007.
- R. E. Moellering, K. C. Black, C. Krishnamurty et al., “Acid treatment of melanoma cells selects for invasive phenotypes,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 411–425, 2008.
- R. A. Gatenby and E. T. Gawlinski, “A reaction-diffusion model of cancer invasion,” Cancer Research, vol. 56, no. 24, pp. 5745–5753, 1996.
- R. A. Gatenby and E. T. Gawlinski, “Mathematical models of tumour invasion mediated by transformation-induced alteration of microenvironmental pH,” Novartis Foundation Symposium, vol. 240, pp. 85–96, 2001.
- A. A. Patel, E. T. Gawlinski, S. K. Lemieux, and R. A. Gatenby, “A cellular automaton model of early tumor growth and invasion: the effects of native tissue vascularity and increased anaerobic tumor metabolism,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol. 213, no. 3, pp. 315–331, 2001.
- N. Raghunand, X. He, R. van Sluis et al., “Enhancement of chemotherapy by manipulation of tumour pH,” The British Journal of Cancer, vol. 80, no. 7, pp. 1005–1011, 1999.
- I. F. Robey, B. K. Baggett, N. D. Kirkpatrick et al., “Bicarbonate increases tumor pH and inhibits spontaneous metastases,” Cancer Research, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 2260–2268, 2009.
- A. I. Hashim, H. H. Cornnell, M. de Lourdes Coelho Ribeiro et al., “Reduction of metastasis using a non-volatile buffer,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 841–849, 2011.
- A. Ibrahim-Hashim, H. H. Cornnell, D. Abrahams et al., “Systemic buffers inhibit carcinogenesis in TRAMP mice,” Journal of Urology, vol. 188, no. 2, pp. 624–631, 2012.
- I. F. Robey and N. K. Martin, “Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer,” BMC Cancer, vol. 11, article 235, 2011.
- U. Mahmood, C. Tung, A. Bogdanov Jr., and R. Weissleder, “Near-infrared optical imaging of protease activity for tumor detection,” Radiology, vol. 213, no. 3, pp. 866–870, 1999.
- I. Giusti, S. D'Ascenzo, D. Millimaggi et al., “Cathepsin B mediates the pH-dependent proinvasive activity of tumor-shed microvesicles,” Neoplasia, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 481–488, 2008.
- S. D. Webb, J. A. Sherratt, and R. G. Fish, “Alterations in proteolytic activity at low pH and its association with invasion: a theoretical model,” Clinical and Experimental Metastasis, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 397–407, 1999.
- L. L. Johnson, A. G. Pavlovsky, A. R. Johnson et al., “A rationalization of the acidic pH dependence for stromelysin-1 (matrix metalloproteinase-3) catalysis and inhibition,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 275, no. 15, pp. 11026–11033, 2000.
- A. F. Chambers and L. M. Matrisian, “Changing views of the role of matrix metalloproteinases in metastasis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 89, no. 17, pp. 1260–1270, 1997.
- A. Ishihara, K. Nabeshima, and M. Koono, “Partial purification and characterization of serum protease from tumor-bearing rats which cleaves type IV collagen,” Invasion and Metastasis, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 225–245, 1986.
- M. D. Kramer, P. Robinson, I. Vlodavsky et al., “Characterization of an extracellular matrix-degrading protease derived from a highly metastatic tumor cell line,” European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 307–316, 1985.
- S. R. Slivka and D. J. Loskutoff, “Platelets stimulate endothelial cells to synthesize type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor. Evaluation of the role of transforming growth factor β,” Blood, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 1013–1019, 1991.
- Y. Kato, C. A. Lambert, A. C. Colige et al., “Acidic extracellular pH induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in mouse metastatic melanoma cells through the phospholipase D-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 12, pp. 10938–10944, 2005.
- Y. Kato, Y. Nakayama, M. Umeda, and K. Miyazaki, “Induction of 103-kDa gelatinase/type IV collagenase by acidic culture conditions in mouse metastatic melanoma cell lines,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 267, no. 16, pp. 11424–11430, 1992.
- Y. Kato, S. Ozawa, M. Tsukuda et al., “Acidic extracellular pH increases calcium influx-triggered phospholipase D activity along with acidic sphingomyelinase activation to induce matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in mouse metastatic melanoma,” FEBS Journal, vol. 274, no. 12, pp. 3171–3183, 2007.
- A. Giatromanolaki, M. I. Koukourakis, E. Sivridis et al., “Expression of hypoxia-inducible carbonic anhydrase-9 relates to angiogenic pathways and independently to poor outcome in non-small cell lung cancer,” Cancer Research, vol. 61, no. 21, pp. 7992–7998, 2001.
- N. Robertson, C. Potter, and A. L. Harris, “Role of carbonic anhydrase IX in human tumor cell growth, survival, and invasion,” Cancer Research, vol. 64, no. 17, pp. 6160–6165, 2004.
- E. Svastova, N. Zilka, M. Zat'ovicova et al., “Carbonic anhydrase IX reduces E-cadherin-mediated adhesion of MDCK cells via interaction with beta-catenin,” Experimental Cell Research, vol. 290, no. 2, pp. 332–345, 2003.
- P. Swietach, R. D. Vaughan-Jones, and A. L. Harris, “Regulation of tumor pH and the role of carbonic anhydrase 9,” Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 299–310, 2007.
- J. W. Wojtkowiak, J. M. Rothberg, V. Kumar et al., “Chronic autophagy is a cellular adaptation to tumor acidic pH microenvironments,” Cancer Research, vol. 72, no. 16, pp. 3938–3947, 2012.
- B. X. Hoang, B. T. Le, H. D. Tran et al., “Dimethyl sulfoxidesodium bicarbonate infusion for palliative care and pain relief in patients with metastatic prostate cancer,” Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 350–355, 2011.
- B. X. Hoang, D. M. Tran, H. Q. Tran et al., “Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain,” Journal of Pain and Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2011.
- N. Raghunand, B. Mahoney, R. van Sluis, B. Baggett, and R. J. Gillies, “Acute metabolic alkalosis enhances response of C3H mouse mammary tumors to the weak base mitoxantrone,” Neoplasia, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 227–235, 2001.
- S. Berkemeyer, “The straight line hypothesis elaborated: case reference obesity, an argument for acidosis, oxidative stress, and disease conglomeration?” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 59–64, 2010.
- J. Pizzorno, L. A. Frassetto, and J. Katzinger, “Diet-induced acidosis: is it real and clinically relevant?” The British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 103, no. 8, pp. 1185–1194, 2010.
- G. K. Schwalfenberg, “The alkaline diet: is there evidence that an alkaline pH diet benefits health?” Journal of Environmental and Public Health, vol. 2012, Article ID 727630, 7 pages, 2012.
- I. F. Robey, “Examining the relationship between diet-induced acidosis and cancer,” Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 9, no. 1, article 72, 2012.
- R. A. Gatenby and R. J. Gillies, “A microenvironmental model of carcinogenesis,” Nature Reviews Cancer, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 56–61, 2008.