Figure 10: The serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines measured in the arthritic and nonarthritic animals. The arthritic control rats showed a significant increase in the levels TNF-α (*) and IL-1β (**) compared to the normal control group. The indomethacin- and NHAG-treated arthritic rats showed a significant increase in the levels of TNF-α (δ and ‡) and IL-1β (*δ and *‡) compared to the arthritic control group, respectively. Within the treatment groups, no significant difference was found. The concentration of IL-1β in both the treated groups was comparable to normal control. In contrast the TNF-α concentration in the treated groups was higher compared to normal control; however, it was found statistically non-significant.