Table 1: Parasite helminths involved in the regulation of EAE.

HelminthAutoimmune disease modelIncidenceClinical score of sick animalsOnset delay (days)Associated leukocyte populationsCytokines involvedRef.

T.  crassiceps MOG-induced EAE50%0.5/51AAMs, Th2 cellsHigh IL-4/10; low IFNγ, TNFα, IL-17[16]
T.  pseudospiralis MOG-induced EAE67%1.5/511Th2 cellsHigh IL-4/5/10; low IL-1 /6/17 IFN and TNFα[34]
S.  mansoni MOG-induced EAE57%1.5/52Th2 cellsHigh IL-4/5/10; low IL-12, IFN , TNFα[13]
F.  hepatica MOG-induced EAEN.S.1/52Th2 cells, Tregs, iDCs, AAMs, eosinophils and MDSCsHigh TGF ; low IFN and IL-17[35]
S.  venezuelensis MBP-induced EAE100%3/50NonN.S.[36]
T.  spiralis SCTH-induced EAE100%2/41Th2 cells, TregsHigh IL-4/10; low IL-17 and IFN [37]

MOG: myelin oligodendrocyte protein; MBP: myelin basic protein; SCTH: spinal cord tissue homogenate; N.S.: not specified; see original references, as disease severity is differentially evaluated between authors.