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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 515712, 10 pages
Research Article

Genotypically Different Clones of Staphylococcus aureus Are Diverse in the Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns and Biofilm Formations

1Laboratory of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Department of Medical Microbiology, Basrah University, Basrah, Iraq
3Laboratory of Marine Science and Aquaculture, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Al Bukacyriyah, Saudi Arabia
6Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 4 October 2013

Academic Editor: Javeed Iqbal

Copyright © 2013 Salman Sahab Atshan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study evaluated whether genotypically different clinical isolates of S. aureus have similar susceptibilities to individual antibiotics. It further aims to check the impact of biofilm on the in vitro activity of vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline against S. aureus clones. The study used a total of 60 different clinical MSSA and MRSA isolates. Susceptibilities were performed in planktonic cultures by macrobroth dilution and epsilon-test (E test) system. Biofilm production was determined using an adherent plate assay. The efficacy of antimicrobial activities against biofilms formation was checked using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The study found that similar and different spa, MLST, and SCCmec types displayed high variation in their susceptibilities to antibiotics with tigecycline and daptomycin being the most effective. The biofilms were found resistant to high concentrations of most antibiotics tested with daptomycin being the most effective drug used in adhesive biofilms. A considerable difference exists among similar and various clone types against antibiotics tested. This variation could have contributed to the degree of virulence even within the same clonal genotype and enhanced heterogeneity in the infection potential. Thus, the development of a rapid and precise identification profile for each clone in human infections is important.