Figure 3: Immunofluorescent staining of LYVE-1, F4/80, and VEGFC in human colon carcinoma cells expressing different levels of TGFα. Lymphatic vessels are labeled with LYVE-1 (green) and macrophage cells with F4/80 (red). The number of tumor-associated lymphatic vessels was greatest in selected high-level TGFα tumors and fewest in tumors that do not express TGFα. Tumor recruitment of macrophages was also fewest in tumors that do not express TGFα. Macrophage cells localized to selected high level TGFα tumors also expressed LYVE-1. The macrophage population recruited to TGFα-expressing tumors also produced abundant levels of the lymphatic endothelial cell growth factor VEGFC. Scale bars = 100 μm [50].