Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 571912, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/571912
Review Article

Psoriasis: Female Skin Changes in Various Hormonal Stages throughout Life—Puberty, Pregnancy, and Menopause

1Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Zagreb University Hospital Center and School of Medicine, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
2Ministry of Justice, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia
3Institute of Emergency Medicine, 42 000 Varazdin County, Croatia

Received 5 October 2013; Accepted 26 November 2013

Academic Editor: Gérald E. Piérard

Copyright © 2013 Romana Ceovic et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Y. Liu, J. G. Krueger, and A. M. Bowcock, “Psoriasis: genetic associations and immune system changes,” Genes and Immunity, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. A. Johnson and A. W. Armstrong, “Clinical and histologic diagnostic guidelines for psoriasis: a critical review,” Clinical Reviews in Allergy Immunology, vol. 44, 2, pp. 166–172, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. M. T. Islam, H. K. Paul, S. M. Zakaria, M. M. Islam, and M. Shafiquzzaman, “Epidemiological determinants of psoriasis,” Mymensingh Medical Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K. Boniface, B. Blom, Y. J. Liu, and M. R. de Waal, “From interleukin-23 to T-helper 17 cells: human T-helper cell differentiation revisited,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 226, no. 1, pp. 132–146, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. A. Lowes, A. M. Bowcock, and J. G. Krueger, “Pathogenesis and therapy of psoriasis,” Nature, vol. 445, pp. 866–873, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. Coimbra, A. Figueiredo, E. Castro, P. Rocha-Pereira, and A. Santos-Silva, “The roles of cells and cytokines in the pathogenesis of psoriasis,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 389–398, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. M. Langan, N. M. Seminara, D. B. Shin et al., “Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a population-based study in the United Kingdom,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 556–562, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. I. Grozdev, D. Kast, L. Cao et al., “Physical and mental impact of psoriasis severity as measured by the compact short form-12 health survey (SF-12) quality of life tool,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 132, no. 4, pp. 1111–1116, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Gupta and A. Gupta, “Psychological factors and psoriasis,” in Epidemiology, Causes and Prevention of Skin Diseases, J. J. Grob, R. Stern, R. Mackie, and W. Weinstock, Eds., pp. 129–141, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  10. B. Lindelof, G. Eklund, S. Liden, and R. S. Stern, “The prevalence of malignant tumors in patients with psoriasis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 22, part 1, no. 6, pp. 1056–1060, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Lindegard, “Diseases associated with psoriasis in a general population of 159,200 middle-aged, urban, native Swedes,” Dermatologica, vol. 172, no. 6, pp. 298–304, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Pietrzak, B. Lecewicz-Toruń, and A. Jakimiuk, “Lipid and hormone profile in psoriatic females,” Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska. Sectio D, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 478–483, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. E. Murase, K. K. Chan, T. J. Garite, D. M. Cooper, and G. D. Weinstein, “Hormonal effect on psoriasis in pregnancy and post partum,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 141, no. 5, pp. 601–606, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. J. Villaseñor-Park, D. Wheeler, and L. Grandinetti, “Psoriasis: evolving treatment for a complex disease,” Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, vol. 79, no. 6, pp. 413–423, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. N. Kanda and S. Watanabe, “Regulatory roles of sex hormones in cutaneous biology and immunology,” Journal of Dermatological Science, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. M. Pennell, C. L. Galligan, and E. N. Fish, “Sex affects immunity,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 38, no. 2-3, pp. J282–J291, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. P. Raychaudhuri and J. Gross, “A comparative study of pediatric onset psoriasis with adult onset psoriasis,” Pediatric Dermatology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 174–178, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. J. Na, S. J. Jo, and J. I. Youn, “Clinical study on psoriasis patients for past 30 years [1982–2012] in seoul national university hospital psoriasis clinic,” The Journal of Dermatology, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 731–735, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. G. Swanbeck, A. Inerot, T. Martinsson et al., “Age at onset and different types of psoriasis,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. 768–773, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Henseler and E. Christophers, “Psoriasis of early and late onset: characterization of two types of psoriasis vulgaris,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 450–456, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. “Psoriasis Society of Canada,” http://www.psoriasissociety.org/education.htm.
  22. “The Psoriasis Association Milton House,” http://www.psoriasis-association.org.uk.
  23. L. E. Bryld, T. I. A. Sørensen, K. K. Andersen, G. B. E. Jemec, and J. L. Baker, “High body mass index in adolescent girls precedes psoriasis hospitalization,” Acta Dermato-Venereologica, vol. 90, no. 5, pp. 488–493, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. B. E. Jemec and F. Wojnarowska, “The distribution of p29 protein in normal human skin,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 217–224, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Pelletier and L. Ren, “Localization of sex steroid receptors in human skin,” Histology and Histopathology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 629–636, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Bertil, M. A. Bolzinger, V. André, P. Rousselle, and O. Damour, “Expression of oestrogen-related receptor alpha in human epidermis,” Experimental Dermatology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 208–213, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Im, E. S. Lee, W. Kim et al., “Expression of progesterone receptor in human keratinocytes,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 647–654, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Verdier-Sevrain, M. Yaar, J. Cantatore, A. Traish, and B. A. Gilchrest, “Estradiol induces proliferation of keratinocytes via a receptor mediated mechanism,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1252–1254, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. C. Gilliver and G. S. Ashcroft, “Sex steroids and cutaneous wound healing: the contrasting influences of estrogens and androgens,” Climacteric, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 276–288, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Merlo, G. Frasca, P. L. Canonico, and M. A. Sortino, “Differential involvement of Estrogen receptorα and estrogen receptorβ in the healing promoting effect of estrogen in human keratinocytes,” Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 200, no. 2, pp. 189–197, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. J. Thornton, “Oestrogen functions in skin and skin appendages,” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 617–629, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. H. Straub, “The complex role of estrogens in inflammation,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 521–574, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. L. Salem, “Estrogen, a double-edged sword: modulation of TH1- and TH2-mediated inflammations by differential regulation of TH1/TH2 cytokine production,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 97–104, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Hirano, D. Furutama, and T. Hanafusa, “Physiologically high concentrations of 17β-estradiol enhance NF-κB activity in human T cells,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 292, no. 4, pp. R1465–R1471, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Xing, W. Feng, A. P. Miller et al., “Estrogen modulates TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in rat aortic smooth muscle cells through estrogen receptor-β activation,” American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 292, no. 6, pp. H2607–H2612, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Cutolo, R. Brizzolara, F. Atzeni, S. Capellino, R. H. Straub, and P. C. S. Puttini, “The immunomodulatory effects of estrogens: clinical relevance in immune-mediated rheumatic diseases,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1193, pp. 36–42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. D. Verthelyi, “Sex hormones as immunomodulators in health and disease,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 1, no. 6, pp. 983–993, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. X. T. Lima, V. Janakiraman, M. D. Hughes, and A. B. Kimball, “The impact of psoriasis on pregnancy outcomes,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. M. Mowad, D. J. Margolis, A. C. Halpern, B. Suri, M. Synnestvedt, and C. A. Guzzo, “Hormonal influences on women with psoriasis,” Cutis, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 257–260, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. P. Vessey, R. Painter, and J. Powell, “Skin disorders in relation to oral contraception and other factors, including age, social class, smoking and body mass index. Findings in a large cohort study,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 143, no. 4, pp. 815–820, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. S. Boyd and L. King Jr., “Tamoxifen-induced remission of psoriasis,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 887–889, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. L. Landau, M. N. Moody, N. Kazakevich, and L. H. Goldberg, “Psoriasis and the pregnant woman: what are the key considerations?” Skin Therapy Letter, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1–3, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. S. Shelly, M. Boaz, and H. Orbach, “Prolactin and autoimmunity,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 11, no. 6-7, pp. A465–A470, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. F. S. Dhabhar, “Psychological stress and immunoprotection versus immunopathology in the skin.,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 18–30, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. O. Y. Oumeish and A. W. S. Al-Fouzan, “Miscellaneous diseases affected by pregnancy,” Clinics in Dermatology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 113–117, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. M. Farber and M. L. Nall, “The natural history of psoriasis in 5,600 patients,” Dermatologica, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 1–18, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A. S. Boyd, L. F. Morris, C. M. Phillips, and M. A. Menter, “Psoriasis and pregnancy: hormone and immune system interaction,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 169–172, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. Lomholt, Psoriasis: Prevalence, Spontaneous Course, and Genetics: A Census Study on the Prevalence of Skin Diseases on the Faroe Islands, GEC Gad, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1963.
  49. M. E. McNeill, “Multiple pregnancy-induced remissions of psoriatic arthritis: case report,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 159, no. 4, pp. 896–897, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. Ceovic, J. Lipozencic, A. Pasic, and K. Kostovic, “Psoriasis in pregnancy: a review of most important literature data,” Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 193–197, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  51. H. Carlsten, N. Nilsson, R. Jonsson, K. Backman, R. Holmdahl, and A. Tarkowski, “Estrogen accelerates immune complex glomerulonephritis but ameliorates T cell-mediated vasculitis and sialadenitis in autoimmune MRL lpr/lpr mice,” Cellular Immunology, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 190–202, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. L. E. Clemens, P. K. Siiteri, and D. P. Stites, “Mechanism of immunosuppression of progesterone on maternal lymphocyte activation during pregnancy,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 122, no. 5, pp. 1978–1985, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. S. Munroe, “Progesteroids as immunosuppressive agents,” Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 361–375, 1971. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. T. Mori, H. Kobayashi, H. Nishimoto, A. Suzuki, T. Nishimura, and T. Mori, “Inhibitory effect of progesterone and 20α hydroxypregn 4 en 3 one on the phytohemagglutinin induced transformation of human lymphocytes,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 151–157, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. I. Moriyama and T. Sugawa, “Progesterone facilitates implantation of xenogenic cultured cells in hamster uterus,” Nature, vol. 236, no. 66, pp. 150–152, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. P. K. Siiteri, F. Febres, and L. E. Clemens, “Progesterone and maintenance of pregnancy: is progesterone nature's immunosuppressant?” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 286, pp. 384–396, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Y. H. Xiong, Z. Yuan, and L. He, “Effects of estrogen on CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell in peripheral blood during pregnancy,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 748–752, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. S. Weatherhead, S. C. Robson, and N. J. Reynolds, “Management of psoriasis in pregnancy,” British Medical Journal, vol. 334, no. 7605, pp. 1218–1220, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Kar, A. Krishnan, and P. V. Shivkumar, “Pregnancy and skin,” The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 268–275, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. Y. S. C. Bae, A. S. Van Voorhees, S. Hsu et al., “Review of treatment options for psoriasis in pregnant or lactating women: from the medical board of the national psoriasis foundation,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 459–477, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Wojas-Pelc, M. Nastałek, and J. Sułowicz, “Estrogens and the skin—slowing down the aging process,” Proverbs Menopauz, vol. 12, pp. 314–318, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  62. N. Santoro, “The menopausal transition,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 118, 2, no. 12, pp. 8–13, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  63. M. R. Soules, S. Sherman, E. Parrott et al., “Executive summary: stages of reproductive aging workshop (STRAW),” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 874–878, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. G. Swanbeck, A. Inerot, T. Martinsson, and J. Wahlstrom, “A population genetic study of psoriasis,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus