Table 4: Examples from the literature of minerals’ effects in cell culture and on genomic stability.

MicronutrientMain effects on cell viability and genomic stabilityCell typeAdditional information regarding the form and concentration of the micronutrient evaluatedStatus in relation to physiological concentrationReferences

Increased cytotoxicity and ROS formationHepG250, 100, 150, and 200  mol/LHigher[184]
CopperReduced mitochondrial activity and cell viability and increased DNA damage Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1)24.55, 35.40, 48.31, 89.23, 116.77, 170.75, 339.45, and 450.35  mol/LHigher[185]
Increased the DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner and also reduced rates of DNA synthesis and histone acetylationLeukemia cells (HL-60)Total absence, 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200  mol/LLower, Similar, and Higher [186]

Inhibited DNA synthesis in proliferative cellsHuman lymphocytesIron suiphate (22.38, 44.76, and 89.52  mol/L)Similar and Higher[187]
IronPossibly accelerated aging process and death at concentrations 10  mol/L, whereas 5  mol/L increased protein contentCerebellar granule cellsFerric nitrilotriacetate (5, 10, 15, 20, and 40  mol/L are shownLower, Similar, and Higher[188]
Genotoxic effectsPrimary nontransformed colon cells and preneoplastic colon adenoma cell line (LT97)Ferric nitrilotriacetate (10, 100, 250, 500, and 1000  mol/L)Lower and Higher[189]

Inhibited cell proliferation and promoted endothelial dysfunction by generating proinflammatory, prothrombotic, and proatherogenic environmentHuman endothelial cellsMagnesium sulphate (100, 500, and 1000  mol/L)Lower and Higher[190]
Inhibited growth more drastically in normal than in transformed cells and altered cell-cycle progressionNormal (HC11) and transformed (MCF-7) breast epithelial cell linesTotal absence, 10, 30, 50, 100, 300, and 500  mol/LLower[191]
MagnesiumInadequate concentration accelerated cell senescenceNormal human fibroblasts (IMR-90)100, 400, and 800  mol/LLower and Similar[192]
Incision repair completely inhibited in absence of Mg2+ as well as at very high concentrations, whereas optimal concentrations essential in all steps of NERHuman lymphoblastoid (AHH1) and clonal human epithelial adenocarcinoma (HeLa S3) cell lines400 and 800  mol/LLower and Similar[193]

SeleniumMethylseleninic acid, L-selenocysteine, selenodiglutathione, or selenite-induced cell death in micromolar concentrations, whereas selenomethionine or ebselen was not toxic within the concentration range testedHepG2, human hepatoma cell line (Huh-7), and mouse hepatoma (Hepa 1-6)Sodium selenite, L- or DL-selenocysteine, selenodiglutathione, selenomethyl-selenocysteine, sodium selenate, L- or DL-selenomethionine, methylseleninic acid, ebselen, selenomethionine, and selenodiglutathione  
( to 1000  mol/L)
Lower, Similar and Higher[194]
Induces G1-cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via multiple signaling pathways, which may play a key role in methylselenol-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation and tumor cell invasionHuman sarcoma cell line (HT1080)Seleno-L-methionine (SeMet) (total absence, 1.25, 2.5, and 5  mol/L)Lower[195]
Decrease in cell damage and protection against oxidative stress HepG2 cellsSelenium methylselenocysteine (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10  mol/L) Lower and Similar[196]
Selenium methylselenocysteine (1  mol/L)Lower[197]

Increased oxidative DNA damage; disrupted p53, NF B, and AP1 DNA binding; decreased DNA repairRat glioma cell line (C-6)Zn sulfate and Zn carnosine (4.0  mol/L)Lower[198]
ZincDecreased cell growth and viability, increased DNA SB and cytotoxicity in Zn-depleted cultures as well as at concentrations of 32 and 100  M; reduced genomic damage in cultures supplemented with 4 or 16  MHuman lymphoblastoid cell line (WIL2-NS)Zn sulfate and Zn carnosine (total absence, 0.4, 4.0, 16.0, 32.0, and 100.0  mol/L)Lower, Similar, and Higher[199]
Decreased cell viability in Zn-depleted cultures (0  M) as well as at concentrations of 32 and 100  M for both Zn compounds and increased DNA SB, apoptotic, and necrotic cells in Zn-depleted cultures Primary human oral keratinocyte cell line (HOK)[200]