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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 639368, 12 pages
Review Article

The Role of Osteoimmunology in Periodontal Disease

Department of Oral Basic and Clinical Science, King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Dentistry, P.O. Box 3738, Jeddah 21481, Saudi Arabia

Received 5 April 2013; Revised 15 August 2013; Accepted 17 August 2013

Academic Editor: Shigeru Kotake

Copyright © 2013 Rayyan A. Kayal. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Periodontal disease is a pathological condition that involves inflammation of the tooth supporting structures. It occurs in response to the presence of bacterial plaque on the tooth structure. The host defense system, including innate and adaptive immunity, is responsible for combating the pathologic bacteria invading the periodontal tissue. Failure to eradicate the invading pathogens will result in a continuous state of inflammation where inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, PMNs, and macrophages will continue to produce inflammatory mediators in an effort to destroy the invaders. Unfortunately, these inflammatory mediators have a deleterious effect on the host tissue as well as foreign microbes. One of the effects of these mediators on the host is the induction of matrix degradation and bone resorption through activation of proteases and other inflammatory mediators that activate osteoclasts.