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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 676489, 10 pages
Review Article

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cardiovascular Fibrosis and Inflammation: From Clinical Practice to Animal Studies and Back

Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, German Heart Institute Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany

Received 30 April 2013; Revised 13 July 2013; Accepted 21 July 2013

Academic Editor: Monvadi Barbara Srichai

Copyright © 2013 Adelina Doltra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Late gadolinium enhancement is the technique of choice for detecting myocardial fibrosis. Although this technique is used in a wide range of cardiovascular pathologies, ischemic cardiomyopathy and the workup for myocarditis and other cardiomyopathies make up a significant proportion of the total indications. Multiple studies during the last decade have demonstrated its utility to adequately characterize myocardial tissue and offer diagnostic and prognostic information. Recent T1 mapping techniques aim to overcome the limitations of late gadolinium enhancement to assess diffuse fibrosis. 19F magnetic resonance has recently emerged as a promising technique for the assessment of inflammation. In the following review we will discuss the basic aspects of fibrosis assessment with MR and its utility for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation. We will also address the topic of cardiovascular inflammation imaging with 19F as a potential new development that may broaden the indications for MR in the future.