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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 689591, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/689591
Review Article

Clinical, Biological, and Imaging Features of Monogenic Alzheimer’s Disease

Clinica Neurologica, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Pza Spedali Civili, 1-25100 Brescia, Italy

Received 25 September 2013; Accepted 4 November 2013

Academic Editor: Benedetta Nacmias

Copyright © 2013 Andrea Pilotto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The discovery of monogenic forms of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) associated with mutations within PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP genes is giving a big contribution in the understanding of the underpinning mechanisms of this complex disorder. Compared with sporadic form, the phenotype associated with monogenic cases is somewhat broader including behavioural disturbances, epilepsy, myoclonus, and focal presentations. Structural and functional imaging show typical early changes also in presymptomatic monogenic carriers. Amyloid imaging and CSF tau/Aβ ratio may be useful in the differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative dementias, especially, in early onset cases. However, to date any specific biomarkers of different monogenic cases have been identified. Thus, in clinical practice, the early identification is often difficult, but the copresence of different elements could help in recognition. This review will focus on the clinical and instrumental markers useful for the very early identification of AD monogenic cases, pivotal in the development, and evaluation of disease-modifying therapy.