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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 693643, 13 pages
Review Article

HLA-G/C, miRNAs, and Their Role in HIV Infection and Replication

1Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, 34137 Trieste, Italy
2University of Trieste, 34128 Trieste, Italy

Received 21 March 2013; Revised 3 May 2013; Accepted 7 May 2013

Academic Editor: Enrique Medina-Acosta

Copyright © 2013 Fulvio Celsi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In recent years, a number of different mechanisms regulating gene expressions, either in normal or in pathological conditions, have been discovered. This review aims to highlight some of the regulatory pathways involved during the HIV-1 infection and disease progression, focusing on the novel discovered microRNAs (miRNAs) and their relation with immune system’s agents. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family of proteins plays a key role because it is a crucial modulator of the immune response; here we will examine recent findings, centering especially on HLA-C and -G, novel players lately discovered to engage in modulation of immune system. We hope to provide novel perspectives useful to find out original therapeutic roads against HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression.