Figure 1: HIV virus is formed by a diploid single strand RNA genome (1) enclosed in a truncated cone capsid (2) with a phospholipidic bilayer envelope (3), containing the proteins that allow the virus entry into the cells (4). The HIV-1 infection is mediated by interaction between the proteins of the viral envelope, leukocyte receptor, and coreceptor (5). This interaction causes the membranes fusion and the uncoating of the virion core (6). The viral RNA is reverse transcribed in DNA (7) which enters in the nucleus where the integrase enzyme catalyzes the insertion of the viral genome into the genome of the host cell (8). The expression of integrated viral genome is controlled by the RNA-binding proteins tat and rev. A set of RNAs are transported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where they can be translated or packaged (9). The new core proteins localize near the cell membrane (10), while the envelope mRNA is translated at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently the envelope proteins are placed on the cell membrane (11). Finally, the capsid proteins are assembled with the viral genomic RNA (12), and an immature virion begins to bud from cell surface (13).