Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 697279, 9 pages
Research Article

The Stepwise Behavioral Responses: Behavioral Adjustment of the Chinese Rare Minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) in the Exposure of Carbamate Pesticides

College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, Ji’nan 250014, China

Received 3 April 2013; Accepted 22 May 2013

Academic Editor: Qaisar Mahmood

Copyright © 2013 Zongming Ren et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In order to illustrate the behavioral regulation in environmental stress, the behavioral responses of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus) to arprocarb, carbofuran, and oxamyl were analyzed with an online monitoring system. The Self-Organizing Map (SOM) was used to define the patterns of the behavioral data obtained from treatments at concentrations of 0.1 toxic unit (TU), 1 TU, 2 TU, 5 TU, 10 TU, and 20 TU and a control. In certain cases, differences among the carbamate pesticides (CPs) tested were observed. The profiles of behavioral strength (BS) in SOM varied according to the concentration used. The time of the first significant decrease of the BS varied inversely with the CP concentrations. The results suggested that the behavioral regulation in the stepwise behavioral responses (SBR) was evident. The primary movement behaviors shown by the SBR model included no effect, stimulation, acclimation, adjustment (readjustment), and toxic effect, especially at the lower concentrations. However, higher stress (10 TU and 20 TU) might limit the function of the behavioral adjustment produced by the intrinsic response mechanisms. It was concluded that SBR, which were affected by both the concentration and the exposure time, could be used as a suitable indicator in the ecotoxicological risk assessment of CPs.