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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 701439, 9 pages
Research Article

Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period

1Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan 302055, India
2Radiation and Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India

Received 30 April 2013; Revised 17 June 2013; Accepted 17 June 2013

Academic Editor: Qaisar Mahmood

Copyright © 2013 Shivi Saini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O) to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5) mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease ( ) in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly ( ) at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure.