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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 752965, 10 pages
Research Article

Familiar Music as an Enhancer of Self-Consciousness in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease

1Department of Psychobiology and Methodology of Behaviour Sciences, Neuroscience Institute of Castilla-León, University of Salamanca, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
2Memory Clinic, 37002 Salamanca, Spain
3Department of Neurology, University Hospital, CHU La Milétrie, 86000 Poitiers, France

Received 8 April 2013; Revised 2 August 2013; Accepted 5 August 2013

Academic Editor: Michael Rapp

Copyright © 2013 Eva M. Arroyo-Anlló et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of familiar music on self-consciousness (SC) in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). For this purpose, two AD groups of 20 patients matched by age, educational level, gender, illness duration, and cognitive state were assessed using an SC questionnaire before and after music intervention. The SC questionnaire measured several aspects: personal identity, anosognosia, affective state, body representation, prospective memory, introspection and moral judgments. One AD group received familiar music stimulation and another AD group unfamiliar music stimulation over three months. The AD patients who received a familiar music intervention showed a stabilization or improvement in aspects of SC. By contrast, control AD group showed a deterioration of most of the SC aspects after unfamiliar music stimulation, except the SC aspects of body representation and affective state. Familiar music stimulation could be considered as an enhancer of SC in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.