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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 758491, 12 pages
Clinical Study

Design and Validation of an Augmented Reality System for Laparoscopic Surgery in a Real Environment

1Instituto Interuniversitario de Investigación en Bioingeniería y Tecnología Orientada al Ser Humano (I3BH), Universitat Politècnica de València, I3BH/LabHuman, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
2CIBER, Fisiopatología de Obesidad y Nutrición (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3Unidad de Cirugía Hepatobiliopancreática y Trasplante Hepático, Hospital Universitario y Politécnico La Fe, 46026 Valencia, Spain

Received 20 May 2013; Revised 12 September 2013; Accepted 16 September 2013

Academic Editor: Surinder K. Jindal

Copyright © 2013 F. López-Mir et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Purpose. This work presents the protocol carried out in the development and validation of an augmented reality system which was installed in an operating theatre to help surgeons with trocar placement during laparoscopic surgery. The purpose of this validation is to demonstrate the improvements that this system can provide to the field of medicine, particularly surgery. Method. Two experiments that were noninvasive for both the patient and the surgeon were designed. In one of these experiments the augmented reality system was used, the other one was the control experiment, and the system was not used. The type of operation selected for all cases was a cholecystectomy due to the low degree of complexity and complications before, during, and after the surgery. The technique used in the placement of trocars was the French technique, but the results can be extrapolated to any other technique and operation. Results and Conclusion. Four clinicians and ninety-six measurements obtained of twenty-four patients (randomly assigned in each experiment) were involved in these experiments. The final results show an improvement in accuracy and variability of 33% and 63%, respectively, in comparison to traditional methods, demonstrating that the use of an augmented reality system offers advantages for trocar placement in laparoscopic surgery.