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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 790263, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/790263
Research Article

Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Clopidogrel: Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Approaches

1Department of Pharmacology, College Medicine, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq
2College of Pharmacy, University of Al-Qadissiya, Diwaniya, Iraq
3Department of Physiology, College Medicine, University of Kufa, Najaf, Iraq

Received 17 September 2013; Revised 7 December 2013; Accepted 7 December 2013

Academic Editor: Joen-Rong Sheu

Copyright © 2013 Najah R. Hadi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Atherosclerosis is characterized by endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation, and the buildup of lipids, cholesterol, calcium, and cellular debris within the intima of the walls of large and medium size arteries. Objective. To evaluate the effect of clopidogrel on atherosclerosis progression. Materials and Methods. A total of 28 local domestic rabbits were assigned to four groups: normal control, atherogenic control, vehicle control, and clopidogrel treated. Serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, plasma high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), and plasma reduced glutathione (GSH) were measured at the end of the experiment. Immunohistochemical of aortic atherosclerotic changes were also performed. Results. There was no statistically significant difference between atherogenic control group and vehicle group. Levels of lipid profile, atherogenic index, hsCRP, and MDA are increased while GSH levels were decreased in animals on atherogenic diet. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that aortic expressions of VCAM-1, MCP-1, TNF-α, and IL-17A were significantly increased in atherogenic control group. Histopathologic finding showed that animals on atherogenic diet have significant atherosclerotic lesion. Compared to atherogenic control group clopidogrel do not have significant effect on lipid profile. Clopidogrel significantly reduces hsCRP and MDA levels and increases GSH level. Furthermore, clopidogrel treatment significantly reduced aortic expressions parameters and the histopathologic examination of the aortic arch showed a significant reduction of atherosclerotic lesion. Conclusions. This study outlines how clopidogrel reduces lipid peroxidation, systemic inflammation, and aortic expression of inflammatory markers and hence reduces the progression of atherosclerosis.