BioMed Research International / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Metabolomics in Plants and Humans: Applications in the Prevention and Diagnosis of Diseases

Table 2

Metabolites used as biomarkers of human diseases.

DiseaseMetabolite biomarkerReferences

Male infertilityCitrate, lactate, and glycerylphosphorylcholine[23, 24]
Lung cancerMetabolites that are shown to have a statistically significant difference between healthy individuals and lung cancer patients were hippurate, trigonelline, -hydroxyisovalerate, -hydroxyisobutyrate, N-acetylglutamine, and creatinine[25]
Alzheimer's diseaseSuccinic anhydride, pyruvic acid, 2-aminopropanol, n,n-didemethylchlorpromazine, L-alanine n-butyl ester, L-glutamic acid dibutyl ester, L-dopa, taurine, creatine, creatinine, lactate, -alanine, cysteine, fumaric acid, 2-octenedioic acid, and acetoacetic acid[26, 27]
Respiratory diseasesAsthmatic children: acetate; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): leucine, lactate, propionate, acetate, and pyruvate[28, 29]
Huntington disease3-Nitropropionic acid[30]
Multiple sclerosisElevated levels: 2-aminobutyrate, 1,3-dimethylurrate, glutamate, and acetate. Reduced levels: oxaloacetate, citrate, alanine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate.[31]
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)Significantly altered levels: glycine, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) (18:2), and acetylcarnitine[32]
Renal cell carcinomaPhospholipids, phenylalanine, tryptophan, acylcarnitines, cholesterol metabolites, and arachidonic acid metabolism[33]
Colorectal cancerActeylcarnine, phenylacetylglutamin, leucylproline, and aspartyllysine[34]
Kidney cancerQuinolinate, 4-hydroxybenzoate, and gentisate[34]