Figure 3: Application of ERG gain analysis in ω-3 deficiency. Averaged group ERG waveforms showing the effect of ω-3 dietary deficiency on the (a) rod-isolated a-b wave complex and (b) STR (reproduced with permission from Nguyen et al. [28]). In Panels (c)–(h) an ERG gain of unity is represented by the thin diagonal lines. The thick black lines represent the ERG gain determined in Figure 2 and Table 1. Grey bars represent the 95% confidence interval for the ω-3 deficiency treatment group. The horizontal arrows represent the predicted downstream loss given the measured upstream change. Asterisks (*) indicate statistically significant direct loss at the respective component ( ). Thus ω-3 deficiency produces (c) PII amplitude reductions that can be expected from the PIIIamp decline, and (d) losses are greater than predicted by ERG gain. The predicted pSTRamp loss (arrow) falls outside the 95% confidence limits (grey bar) for the measured pSTRamp loss in the treated group (filled square). (e) nSTR change can be accounted for by the reduction in PIIamp. In terms of timing ((f), (g), and (h)) the predicted delays (arrows) fall within the 95% confidence interval of the treated groups. Thus the delays in the PII, pSTR, and nSTR can be accounted for by the delay in the outer retinal PIII.