- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 805108, 7 pages
Mucosal Leishmaniasis: An Underestimated Presentation of a Neglected Disease
1Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Clinical and Molecular Biomedicine, Garibaldi Nesima Hospital, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
2Division of Otorhinolaryngology, Department of Medical-Surgical Specialties, Policlinico-Vittorio Emanuele Hospital, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
3Division of Pathology and Experimental Microbiology, Elie Metchnikoff Department, University of Messina, 98125 Messina, Italy
Received 30 April 2013; Accepted 6 June 2013
Academic Editor: Andrew Mujugira
Copyright © 2013 Alessio Strazzulla et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- C. V. David and N. Craft, “Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis,” Dermatologic Therapy, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 491–502, 2009.
- World Health Organization, “World Health Organization Working to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical disease,” First WHO Report on Neglected Disease, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
- T. Kobets, I. Grekov, and M. Lipoldová, “Leishmaniasis: prevention, parasite detection and treatment,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 19, no. 10, pp. 1443–1474, 2012.
- L. Aliaga, F. Cobo, J. D. Mediavilla et al., “Localized mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum clinical and microbiologic findings in 31 patients,” Medicine, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 147–158, 2003.
- M. M. Lessa, H. A. Lessa, T. W. N. Castro et al., “Mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiological and clinical aspects,” Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 73, no. 6, pp. 843–847, 2007.
- H. Goto and J. A. L. Lindoso, “Current diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis,” Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 419–433, 2010.
- L. Jirmanus, M. J. Glesby, L. H. Guimarães et al., “Epidemiological and clinical changes in American tegumentary leishmaniasis in an area of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis transmission over a 20-year period,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 426–433, 2012.
- G. Camuset, V. Remy, Y. Hansmann, D. Christmann, C. Gomes de Albuquerque, and G.-A. Sena Casseb, “Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazilian Amazonia,” Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 343–346, 2007.
- J. A. O. Guerra, L. I. R. C. Coelho, F. R. Pereira et al., “American tegumentary leishmaniasis and HIV-AIDS association in a tertiary care center in the Brazilian Amazon,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 524–527, 2011.
- A. L. García, R. Parrado, E. Rojas, R. Delgado, J. C. Dujardin, and R. Reithinger, “Leishmaniases in Bolivia: comprehensive review and current status,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 704–711, 2009.
- V. L. Tedesqui, G. N. C. Calleja, R. Parra, J. P. Pabón, M. N. Bóia, and F. A. Carvalho-Costa, “Active surveillance of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in endemic areas in rural Bolivia,” Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 30–34, 2012.
- B. Faucher, C. Pomares, S. Fourcade et al., “Mucosal Leishmania infantum leishmaniasis: specific pattern in a multicentre survey and historical cases,” The Journal of Infection, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 76–82, 2011.
- S. Cocuzza, A. Strazzulla, M. R. Pinzone, et al., “Isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis in immunocompetent patients: an underdiagnosed disease,” Case Reports in Infectious Diseases, vol. 2013, Article ID 165409, 7 pages, 2013.
- R. Benmously-Mlika, S. Fenniche, N. Kerkeni, K. Aoun, A. Khedim, and I. Mokhtar, “Primary Leishmania infantum MON-80 endonasal leishmaniasis in Tunisia,” Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie, vol. 135, no. 5, pp. 389–392, 2008.
- G. Sethuraman, V. K. Sharma, and P. Salotra, “Indian mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania donovani infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 3, pp. 313–315, 2008.
- K. Abbas, M. A. Musatafa, S. Abass et al., “Mucosal leishmaniasis in a sudanese patient,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 935–938, 2009.
- D. Rathnayake, R. R. Ranawake, G. Sirimanna, Y. Siriwardhane, N. Karunaweera, and R. de Silva, “Co-infection of mucosal leishmaniasis and extra pulmonary tuberculosis in a patient with inherent immune deficiency,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 549–551, 2010.
- S. Shirian, A. Oryan, G. R. Hatam, and Y. Daneshbod, “Mixed mucosal leishmaniasis infection caused by Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 3805–3808, 2012.
- F. Habibzadeh, J. Sajedianfard, and M. Yadollahie, “Isolated lingual leishmaniasis,” Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 218–219, 2005.
- M. Kharfi, B. Fazaa, E. Chaker, and M. R. Kamoun, “Mucosal localization of leishmaniasis in Tunisia: 5 cases,” Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie, vol. 130, no. 1, part 1, pp. 27–30, 2003.
- Y. Daneshbod, A. Oryan, M. Davarmanesh et al., “Clinical, histopathologic, and cytologic diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis and literature review,” Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 478–482, 2011.
- A. Nandy, M. Addy, D. Banerjee, S. K. Guha, A. K. Maji, and A. M. Saha, “Laryngeal involvement during post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in India,” Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 371–373, 1997.
- A. U. Bari, “Clinical spectrum of cutaneous leishmaniasis: an overview from Pakistan,” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 4, 2012.
- A. Oryan, S. Shirian, M. R. Tabandeh, G. R. Hatam, M. Kalantari, and Y. Daneshbod, “Molecular, cytological, and immunocytochemical study and kDNA sequencing of laryngeal Leishmania infantum infection,” Parasitology Research, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 1799–1804, 2013.
- T. A. Morsy, N. M. Khalil, M. M. Salama, K. N. Hamdi, Y. A. al Shamrany, and K. F. Abdalla, “Mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania tropica in Saudi Arabia,” Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 73–79, 1995.
- M. S. Al-Qahtani, N. W. Malik, S. Jamil, and T. E. Mekki, “Diagnostic dilemma of primary mucosal leishmaniasis,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 33, no. 11, pp. 1234–1238, 2012.
- J. Blum, D. Lockwood, L. Visser, et al., “Local or systemic treatment for New World cutaneous leishmaniasis? Re-evaluating the evidence for the risk of mucosal leishmaniasis,” International Health, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 153–163, 2012.
- V. S. Amato, F. F. Tuon, H. A. Bacha, V. A. Neto, and A. C. Nicodemo, “Mucosal leishmaniasis: current scenario and prospects for treatment,” Acta Tropica, vol. 105, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2008.
- A. Miranda, R. Carrasco, H. Paz et al., “Molecular epidemiology of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Panama,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 565–571, 2009.
- G. Muñoz and C. R. Davies, “Leishmania panamensis transmission in the domestic environment: the results of a prospective epidemiological survey in Santander, Colombia,” Biomédica, vol. 26, supplement 1, pp. 131–144, 2006.
- C. I. de Oliveira and C. I. Brodskyn, “The immunobiology of Leishmania braziliensis infection,” Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 3, article 145, 2012.
- P. D. Ready, “Leishmaniasis emergence in Europe,” Euro Surveillance, vol. 15, no. 10, p. 19505, 2010.
- W. O. Dutra, D. R. de Faria, P. R. L. MacHado et al., “Immunoregulatory and effector activities in human cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis: understanding mechanisms of pathology,” Drug Development Research, vol. 72, no. 6, pp. 430–436, 2011.
- H. Zangger, C. Ronet, C. Desponds, et al., “Detection of Leishmania RNA virus in Leishmania parasites,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, no. 1, article e2006, 2013.
- A. Ives, C. Ronet, F. Prevel et al., “Leishmania RNA virus controls the severity of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis,” Science, vol. 331, no. 6018, pp. 775–778, 2011.
- A. C. Maretti-Mira, J. Bittner, M. P. Oliveira-Neto, et al., “Transcriptome patterns from primary cutaneous Leishmania braziliensis infections associate with eventual development of mucosal disease in humans,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 6, no. 9, article e1816, 2012.
- J. Alvar, P. Aparicio, A. Aseffa et al., “The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 334–359, 2008.
- B. L. Herwaldt, “Leishmaniasis,” The Lancet, vol. 354, no. 9185, pp. 1191–1199, 1999.
- F. Di Lella, V. Vincenti, D. Zennaro et al., “Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: report of a case with massive involvement of nasal, pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa,” International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 870–872, 2006.
- L. Silva, E. Damrose, F. Bairão, M. L. D. Nina, J. C. Junior, and H. O. Costa, “Infectious granulomatous laryngitis: a retrospective study of 24 cases,” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, vol. 265, no. 6, pp. 675–680, 2008.
- R. Huna-Baron, F. A. Warren, W. Miller, J. Jacobs, J. Green, and M. J. Kupersmith, “Mucosal leishmaniasis presenting as sinusitis and optic neuropathy,” Archives of Ophthalmology, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 852–854, 2000.
- E. Jeziorski, C. Blanchet, C. Ludwig et al., “Pseudotumoral-like recurrence of visceral leishmaniasis in a seven-year-old girl,” Archives de pédiatrie, vol. 16, supplement 2, pp. S129–S131, 2009.
- S. Kappagoda, U. Singh, and B. G. Blackburn, “Antiparasitic therapy,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 561–583, 2011.
- A. K. Boggild, B. M. Valencia, N. Veland et al., “Non-invasive cytology brush PCR diagnostic testing in mucosal leishmaniasis: superior performance to conventional biopsy with histopathology,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 10, article e26395, 2011.
- J. Blum, P. Desjeux, E. Schwartz, B. Beck, and C. Hatz, “Treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis among travellers,” The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 158–166, 2004.
- P. R. L. Machado, H. Lassa, M. Lessa et al., “Oral pentoxifylline combined with pentavalent antimony: a randomized trial for mucosal leishmaniasis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 788–793, 2007.
- H. A. Lessa, P. Machado, F. Lima et al., “Successful treatment of refractory mucosal leishmaniasis with pentoxifylline plus antimony,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 87–89, 2001.
- J. P. Dedet, R. Melogno, F. Cardenas et al., “Rural campaign to diagnose and treat mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Bolivia,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 339–345, 1995.
- J. Soto, J. Tolado, L. Valda et al., “Treatment of Bolivian mucosal leishmaniasis with miltefosine,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 350–356, 2007.
- J. Soto, J. Rea, M. Valderrama et al., “Efficacy of extended (six weeks) treatment with miltefosine for mucosal leishmaniasis in Bolivia,” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 387–389, 2009.
- M. Pau, L. Atzori, N. Aste, and N. Aste, “Two cases of primary endonasal leishmaniasis in Sardinia (Italy),” Dermatology Online Journal, vol. 15, no. 6, p. 5, 2009.