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BioMed Research International
Volume 2013, Article ID 854340, 6 pages
Research Article

Periodontal Disease Is an Independent Predictor of Intracardiac Calcification

1Albert Einstein Medical Center and Jefferson Medical College, 5501 Old York Road, Levy, Philadelphia, PA 19141, USA
2Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3Osaka Dental University, Osaka 573-1121, Japan

Received 4 April 2013; Revised 23 July 2013; Accepted 7 August 2013

Academic Editor: Abel Romero-Corral

Copyright © 2013 Gregg S. Pressman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Periodontitis is the most common chronic inflammatory condition worldwide and is associated with incident coronary disease. Hypothesis. We hypothesized that periodontal disease would also be associated with cardiac calcification, a condition which shares many risk factors with atherosclerosis and is considered a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods. Cross-sectional study at two sites (USA and Japan) involving subjects with both clinical echocardiograms and detailed dental examinations. Semiquantitative scoring systems were used to assess severity of periodontal disease and echocardiographic calcification. Results. Fifty-six of 73 subjects (77%) had cardiac calcifications, and 51% had moderate to severe periodontal disease (score > 2). In unadjusted analysis, a significant relationship between periodontal score and cardiac calcification (Spearman rho = 0.4, ) was noted, with increases in mean calcification score seen across increasing levels of periodontal disease. On multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for age, gender, race, glomerular filtration rate, and traditional risk factors, this association remained significant ( ). There was no significant interaction by study site, race, or gender. Conclusions. In a multiracial population, we found a significant association between the degree of periodontal disease, a chronic inflammatory condition, and cardiac calcification. Further, higher periodontal scores were associated with greater degrees of calcification.