Figure 5: Effects of storage at 4°C. Glucose, citrate, lactate, creatinine, PAG, and urea were measured in urine samples from natrosol-, furosemide-, or HCBD-treated rats by 1H NMR metabolite quantification. Repeated measures after storage in the refridgerator at about 4°C were done for the first 5 days at daily intervals, then at longer intervals over a total of 49 days after sample preparation (mean ± SD for –17 per treatment group, including all samples with modified pH or salt concentration, for sample definition see Section 2.4). Samples with suggested microbial degradation were excluded from this evaluation in order to determine only technical variance. (a) Single metabolite quantification results are given as relative concentrations normalized to the first measurement of the respective modified sample. Values close to or below LLOQ (i.e., glucose and lactate concentrations in the samples from natrosol- and furosemide-treated rats) were excluded from evaluation. The grey range (15%) and dotted horizontal lines (20%) show the range of variation stated as acceptable by the “Guidance for Industry” [12]. (b) Prediction of nephrotoxicity was performed using a metabonomics approach (ensemble classification system). For each sample a classifier value is given, labelling the given compound as “(non-)toxic”. The horizontal line at 0.5 is the limit for the prediction of nephrotoxicity, the dashed lines at 0.35 and 0.65 represent an “intermediate” range, related to the statistical significance of the prediction.