Table 1: List of studies describing the ROS-dependent effects of metal-based NP.

NanoparticlesROS-dependent effectReference

Iron oxide
Iron oxideNecrosis and apoptosis in murine macrophage (J774) cells[61]
Zero-valent ironAcute cytotoxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells[140]
Iron oxideHuman microvascular endothelial cell permeability[141]
SPIONSActivation of NF-κB and AP-1, inflammation in human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) and murine epidermal cells (JB6 P(+))[142]

Copper oxide
Copper oxideGenotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells[143]
Copper oxideMitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative DNA damage, cell death in A549 cell line[144]
Copper oxideCytotoxicity in vitro in Hep-2 cell line[145]
Copper oxideNephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in  vivo [146]

Cerium oxide
Cerium oxideLung inflammation and alveolar macrophage apoptosis in  vivo [147]
Cerium oxideApoptosis via caspase-3 activation and chromatin condensation in vitro in BEAS-2B cells[64]
Cerium oxideHO-1 induction via the p38-Nrf-2 signaling pathway in  vitro in BEAS-2B cell line[148]
Cerium oxideLipid peroxidation and membrane damage in  vitro in lung cancer cells[149]

Zinc oxide
Zinc oxideMitochondrial dysfunction, morphological modification, and apoptosis in  vitro in human fetal lung fibroblasts[59]
Zinc oxideCellular oxidant injury, excitation of inflammation, and cell death in BEAS-2B and RAW 264.7 cells[150]
Zinc oxideMitochondrial damage, apoptosis, and IL-8 release in  vitro in LoVo human colon carcinoma cell line [151]
Zinc oxideMitochondrial damage, genotoxic and apoptotic cell effects in vitro human liver cells[152]
Zinc oxideGenotoxic and apoptotic responses in  vitro in human skin melanoma cell line (A375)[153]
Zinc oxideEndoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and necrosis in rat retinal ganglion cells[154]
Zinc oxide nanorodsApoptosis in human alveolar adenocarcinoma cells via p53, surviving, and bax/bcl-2 pathways[155]

NanosilicaCytotoxicity and apoptosis via activation of p53 and Bax in vitro in human hepatic cell line
p53 and p21 mediated G1 phase arrest in  vitro myocardial H9c2 (2-1) cells
NanosilicaCell cycle arrest and apoptosis in vitro human embryonic kidney cell line[158]
NanosilicaHepatotoxicity in  vitro in Kupffer cells and ROS-mediated cell death, oxidative DNA damage[159]

Nickel oxide
Nickel oxideLipid peroxidation, apoptosis in  vivo in human epithelial airway cells[160]
Nickel ferriteApoptosis in A549 cells through oxidative stress via p53, survivin, bax/bcl-2, and caspase pathways in normal Chang (normal human liver), MCF10A (normal breast epithelial), and WI38 (normal lung fibroblast) cell lines[161]

Titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxideApoptotic cell death through ROS-mediated Fas upregulation and Bax activation[162]
Titanium dioxideCytotoxic and genotoxic effects in  vitro in human amnion epithelial (WISH) cell line[163]
Titanium dioxideCytotoxicity and apoptotic cell death in  vitro in HeLa cell line[164]

Aluminum oxide
Aluminium oxideMitochondria mediated oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in human mesenchymal stem cells[165]

Gold Lipid peroxidation and autophagy in  vitro in MRC-5 lung fibroblasts [166]

Ag-NPMitochondrial damage and genotoxicity in human lung fibroblast cells (IMR-90) and human glioblastoma cells (U251)[167]
Ag-NPJNK-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis in NIH3T3 fibroblasts[50]
Ag-NPMitochondrial damage, apoptosis in  vitro in A549 cells[168]

Cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr)
Co-Cr NPOxidative DNA damage, micronuclei induction, reduced cell viability in human dermal fibroblasts[169]