Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 124607, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/124607
Review Article

Therapy of Helicobacter pylori: Present Medley and Future Prospective

1Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht, The Netherlands
2Department of Medical Bacteriology, School of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

Received 10 February 2014; Accepted 16 March 2014; Published 1 April 2014

Academic Editor: Osamu Handa

Copyright © 2014 Amin Talebi Bezmin Abadi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. G. Kusters, A. H. M. van Vliet, and E. J. Kuipers, “Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 449–490, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Kato and M. Asaka, “Recent development of gastric cancer prevention,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 42, no. 11, pp. 987–994, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  3. M. A. Mesquita, S. L. S. Lorena, J. M. R. Zeitune et al., “Recurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection after eradication therapy in Brazilian patients with peptic ulcer,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 39, no. 5, p. 447, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. Cui and L. Zhou, “Helicobacter pylori infection: an overview in 2013, focus on therapy,” Chinese Medical Journal, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 568–573, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. M. Fock, D. Y. Graham, and P. Malfertheiner, “Helicobacter pylori research: historical insights and future directions,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 495–500, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  6. D. Y. Graham and A. Shiotani, “Which therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection?” Gastroenterology, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 10–12, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  7. D. Y. Graham, H. Lu, and Y. Yamaoka, “A report card to grade Helicobacter pylori therapy,” Helicobacter, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 275–278, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. Y. Graham and L. Fischbach, “Helicobacter pylori treatment in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance,” Gut, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1143–1153, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Talebi Bezmin Abadi, A. M. Mobarez, T. Taghvaei, and L. Wolfram, “Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Mazandaran, North of Iran,” Helicobacter, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 505–509, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. F. Loughlin, D. A. Ala'Aldeen, and P. J. Jenks, “Monotherapy with mastic does not eredicate Helicobacter pylori infection from mice,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 367–371, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. W. L. Peterson, D. Y. Graham, B. Marshall et al., “Clarithromycin as monotherapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori: a randomized, double-blind trial,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 1860–1864, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. O. Kamoda, K. Anzai, J. I. Mizoguchi et al., “In vitro activity of a novel antimicrobial agent, TG44, for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 3062–3069, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. Mégraud and P. Lehours, “Helicobacter pylori detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 280–322, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. X. Calvet, P. Lehours, S. Lario, and F. Mégraud, “Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection,” Helicobacter, vol. 15, supplement 1, pp. 7–13, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. Micu, F. Stǎniceanu, S. Zurac et al., “Diagnosis and treatment in Helicobacter pylori infection,” Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 239–247, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. W. D. Chey and B. C. Wong, “American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 1808–1825, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. P. Malfertheiner, F. Megraud, C. A. O'Morain et al., “Management of Helicobacter pylori infection—the Maastricht IV/ Florence consensus report,” Gut, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 646–664, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. P. Malfertheiner, F. Mégraud, C. O'Morain et al., “Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection—the Maastricht 2-2000 Consensus Report,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 167–180, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. E. A. J. Rauws and G. N. J. Tytgat, “Cure of duodenal ulcer associated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori,” The Lancet, vol. 335, no. 8700, pp. 1233–1235, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. L. Gorbach, “Bismuth therapy in gastrointestinal diseases,” Gastroenterology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 863–875, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. P. Malfertheiner, F. Megraud, C. O'Morain et al., “Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the Maastricht III Consensus Report,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 772–781, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. A. H. Allen, “Phagocytosis and persistence of Helicobacter pylori,” Cellular Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 817–828, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Faber, M. Bar-Meir, B. Rudensky et al., “Treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection in children: is in vitro susceptibility testing helpful?” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 571–574, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. N. Onsun, H. Arda Ulusal, O. Su, I. Beycan, D. Biyik Ozkaya, and M. Senocak, “Impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on severity of psoriasis and response to treatment,” European Journal of Dermatology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 117–120, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Y. Graham, Y. C. Lee, and M. S. Wu, “Rational Helicobacter pylori therapy: evidence based medicine rather than medicine based evidence,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 177–186, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. A. T. B. Abadi, M. J. Bonten, and J. G. Kusters, “Comment to “Different Antibiotic No Culture Eradication (DANCE) of Helicobacter pylori: an easy way to manage H. pylori eradication”,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 45, no. 5, p. 438, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  27. D. Y. Graham, P. D. Klein, A. R. Opekun et al., “In vivo susceptibility of Campylobacter pylori,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 84, no. 3, pp. 233–238, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Roccarina, F. Franceschi, M. A. Zocco, M. Garcovich, G. Gasbarrini, and A. Gasbarrini, “Different Antibiotic No Culture Eradicating (DANCE) strategy: an easy way to manage H. pylori eradication,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 889–892, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. J. P. Gisbert, X. Calvet, J. P. A. O'Connor, F. Mégraud, and C. A. O'Morain, “The sequential therapy regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 905–918, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. O'Connor, J. Gisbert, and C. O'Morain, “Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, supplement 1, pp. 46–51, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Abadi, T. Taghvaei, A. Ghasemzadeh, and A. Mobarez, “High frequency of A2143G mutation in clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates recovered from dyspeptic patients in Iran,” Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 396–399, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Talebi Bezmin Abadi, A. Ghasemzadeh, T. Taghvaei, and A. M. Mobarez, “Primary resistance of Helicobacter pylori to levofloxacin and moxifloxacine in Iran,” Internal and Emergency Medicine, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 447–452, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. M. Fock, “Glarithromycin resistance in Helicobacter pylori infection: does it matter?” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1089–1092, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. P. Paoluzi, F. Iacopini, P. Crispino et al., “2-Week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection is better than 1-week in clinical practice: a large prospective single-center randomized study,” Helicobacter, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 562–568, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. S. K. Chuah, F. W. Tsay, P. I. Hsu, and D. C. Wu, “A new look at anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 35, pp. 3971–3975, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Tepes, A. O'Connor, J. P. Gisbert, and C. O'Morain, “Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2012,” Helicobacter, vol. 17, supplement 1, pp. 36–42, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  37. P. I. Hsu, D. C. Wu, J. Y. Wu, and D. Y. Graham, “Modified sequential Helicobacter pylori therapy: proton pump inhibitor and amoxicillin for 14 days with clarithromycin and metronidazole added as a quadruple (hybrid) therapy for the final 7 days,” Helicobacter, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 139–145, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Agudo, G. Pérez-Pérez, T. Alarcón, and M. López-Brea, “High prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori strains and risk factors associated with resistance in Madrid, Spain,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 3703–3707, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. W. H. Wang, B. C. Y. Wong, A. K. Mukhopadhyay et al., “High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection with dual resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Hong Kong,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 901–910, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Zullo, V. Rinaldi, S. Winn et al., “A new highly effective shout-term therapy schedule for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 715–718, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Vaira, A. Zullo, N. Vakil et al., “Sequential therapy versus standard triple-drug therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 146, no. 8, pp. 556–563, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Sardarian, H. Fakheri, V. Hosseini, T. Taghvaei, I. Maleki, and M. Mokhtare, “Comparison of hybrid and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication in Iran: a prospective randomized trial,” Helicobacter, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 129–134, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. F. Mégraud, “H. pylori antibiotic resistance: prevalence, importance, and advances in testing,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1374–1384, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. P. Gisbert, X. Calvet, A. O'Connor, F. Mégraud, and C. A. O'Morain, “Sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a critical review,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 313–325, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. Hojo, H. Miwa, A. Nagahara, and N. Sato, “Pooled analysis on the efficacy of the second-line treatment regimens for Helicobacter pylori infection,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 690–700, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Minakari, A. H. Davarpanah Jazi, A. Shavakhi, N. Moghareabed, and F. Fatahi, “A randomized controlled trial: efficacy and safety of azithromycin, ofloxacin, bismuth, and omeprazole compared with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, bismuth, and omeprazole as second-line therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori infection,” Helicobacter, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 154–159, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. P. Gisbert, A. Pérez-Aisa, M. Castro-Fernández et al., “Helicobacter pylori first-line treatment and rescue option containing levofloxacin in patients allergic to penicillin,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 287–290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. P. Bogaerts, C. Berhin, H. Nizet, and Y. Glupczynski, “Prevalence and mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones in Helicobacter pylori strains from patients living in Belgium,” Helicobacter, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 441–445, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. Raymond, D. Lamarque, N. Kalach, S. Chaussade, and C. Burucoa, “High level of antimicrobial resistance in French Helicobacter pylori isolates,” Helicobacter, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. K. H. Hung, B. S. Sheu, W. L. Chang, H. M. Wu, C. C. Liu, and J. J. Wu, “Prevalence of primary fluoroquinolone resistance among clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori at a University Hospital in Southern Taiwan,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 61–65, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. P. D. van der Linden, M. C. J. M. Sturkenboom, R. M. C. Herings, H. G. M. Leufkens, and B. H. C. Stricker, “Fluoroquinolones and risk of Achilles tendon disorders: case-control study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 324, no. 7349, pp. 1306–1307, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. P. Gisbert, ““Rescue” regimens after Helicobacter pylori treatment failure,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 35, pp. 5385–5402, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. N. Kim, N. Kim, S. H. Lee et al., “The effects of probiotics on PPI-triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Helicobacter, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 261–268, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. J. P. Gisbert and J. M. Pajares, “Helicobacter pylori “rescue” therapy after failure of two eradication treatments,” Helicobacter, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 363–372, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. P. Gisbert, J. L. Gisbert, S. Marcos, D. Olivares, and J. M. Pajares, “Empirical Helicobacter pylori “rescue” therapy after failure of two eradication treatments,” Gastroenterology, vol. 128, no. 4, p. A427, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  56. S. K. Chuah, F. W. Tsay, P. I. Hsu, and D. C. Wu, “A new look at anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 35, pp. 3971–3975, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. D. van der Poorten and P. H. Katelaris, “The effectiveness of rifabutin triple therapy for patients with difficult-to-eradicate Helicobacter pylori in clinical practice,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, no. 11-12, pp. 1537–1542, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. G. Treiber, S. Ammon, P. Malfertheiner, and U. Klotz, “Impact of furazolidone-based quadruple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori after previous treatment failures,” Helicobacter, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 225–231, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. Cammarota, A. Martino, G. Pirozzi et al., “High efficacy of 1-week doxycycline- and amoxicillin-based quadruple regimen in a culture-guided, third-line treatment approach for Helicobacter pylori infection,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 789–795, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. D. Georgopoulos, V. Papastergiou, and S. Karatapanis, “Current options for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori,” Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 211–223, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  61. A. S. Köksal, F. O. Onder, S. Torun et al., “Twice a day quadruple therapy for the first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori in an area with a high prevalence of background antibiotic resistance,” Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 34–37, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  62. A. F. Ciccaglione, L. Cellini, L. Grossi, and L. Marzio, “Quadruple therapy with moxifloxacin and bismuth for first-line treatment of Helicobacter pylori,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 18, no. 32, pp. 4386–4390, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  63. C. Ferreccio, A. Rollán, P. R. Harris et al., “Gastric cancer is related to early Helicobacter pylori infection in a high-prevalence country,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 662–667, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Kato, M. Asaka, Y. Shimizu, A. Nobuta, H. Takeda, and T. Sugiyama, “Relationship between Helicobacter pylori infection and the prevalence, site and histological type of gastric cancer,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. A. T. B. Abadi, A. Rafiei, A. Ajami et al., “Helicobacter pylori homB, but not cagA, is associated with gastric cancer in Iran,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 3191–3197, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. Zullo, C. Hassan, A. Eramo, and S. Morini, “Helicobacter pylori therapy: what is coming?” Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1107–1112, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. Zullo, D. Vaira, N. Vakil et al., “High eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori with a new sequential treatment,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 719–726, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. W. M. Wong, O. Gu, S. K. Lam et al., “Randomized controlled study of rabeprazole, levofloxacin and rifabutin triple therapy vs. quadruple therapy as second-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 553–560, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. A. Müller and J. V. Solnick, “Inflammation, immunity, and vaccine development for Helicobacter pylori,” Helicobacter, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 26–32, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. A. O'Riordan, V. A. Morales, L. Mulligan, N. Faheem, H. J. Windle, and D. P. Kelleher, “Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase: a candidate Helicobacter pylori vaccine,” Vaccine, vol. 30, no. 26, pp. 3876–3884, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus