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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 129048, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/129048
Research Article

Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cell Secreted IGF-1 Protects Myoblasts from the Negative Effect of Myostatin

1Applied Stem Cell Research Center, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
2Department of Trauma Surgery, Center of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
3Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
5Department of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany
6Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Regensburg, 93053 Regensburg, Germany

Received 5 October 2013; Accepted 3 December 2013; Published 23 January 2014

Academic Editor: Xiaowen Bai

Copyright © 2014 Sebastian Gehmert et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Myostatin, a TGF-β family member, is associated with inhibition of muscle growth and differentiation and might interact with the IGF-1 signaling pathway. Since IGF-1 is secreted at a bioactive level by adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), these cells (ASCs) provide a therapeutic option for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). But the protective effect of stem cell secreted IGF-1 on myoblast under high level of myostatin remains unclear. In the present study murine myoblasts were exposed to myostatin under presence of ASCs conditioned medium and investigated for proliferation and apoptosis. The protective effect of IGF-1 was further examined by using IGF-1 neutralizing and receptor antibodies as well as gene silencing RNAi technology. MyoD expression was detected to identify impact of IGF-1 on myoblasts differentiation when exposed to myostatin. IGF-1 was accountable for 43.6% of the antiapoptotic impact and 48.8% for the proliferative effect of ASCs conditioned medium. Furthermore, IGF-1 restored mRNA and protein MyoD expression of myoblasts under risk. Beside fusion and transdifferentiation the beneficial effect of ASCs is mediated by paracrine secreted cytokines, particularly IGF-1. The present study underlines the potential of ASCs as a therapeutic option for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other dystrophic muscle diseases.