BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Ligation Strategies for Targeting Liposomal Nanocarriers

Figure 1

Classical methods for coupling ligands. Schematic representation of a cross section of a liposome bilayer containing functional groups to illustrate (a) crosslinking of primary amines by glutaraldehyde, (b) carbonyl-amine bond formation, (c) amide bond formation by the reaction of para-nitrophenylcarbonyl with primary amine, (d) disulfide bond formation, (e) thioester bond formation by the maleimide-thiol addition reaction, and (f) hydrazone bond formation. Coupling ligands are represented by red stars.