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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 145159, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/145159
Research Article

Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

1Agrochemicals and Environmental Research Division, Institute of Food & Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Savar, Dhaka 1349, Bangladesh
2Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh
4Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Received 4 November 2013; Revised 18 January 2014; Accepted 18 January 2014; Published 10 March 2014

Academic Editor: Miroslav Pohanka

Copyright © 2014 Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena) (), purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50%) of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb) and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl) were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.