BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Tab 5

Research Article

GHK and DNA: Resetting the Human Genome to Health

Table 5

GHK effects on antioxidant genes.

UpGenesPercent change in gene expressionComments

1TLE1762Inhibits the oxidative/inflammatory gene NF-κB [21].
2SPRR2C721This proline-rich, antioxidant protein protects outer skin cells from oxidative damage from ROS. When the ROS level is low, the protein remains in the outer cell membrane but when the ROS level is high, the protein clusters around the cell’s DNA to protect it [22, 23].
3ITGB4609Upregulation of ITGB4 promotes wound repair ability and antioxidative ability [24].
4APOM403Binds oxidized phospholipids and increases the antioxidant effect of HDL [25].
5PON3319Absence of PON3 (paraoxonase 3) in mice resulted in increased rates of early fetal and neonatal death. Knockdown of PON3 in human cells reduced cell proliferation and total antioxidant capacity [26].
6IL18BP295The protein encoded by this gene is an inhibitor of the proinflammatory cytokine IL18. IL18BP abolished IL18 induction of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma), IL8, and activation of NF-κB in vitro. Blocks neutrophil oxidase activity [27].
7HEPH217Inhibits the conversion of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+). HEPH increases iron efflux, lowers cellular iron levels, suppresses reactive oxygen species production, and restores mitochondrial transmembrane potential [28].
8FABP1186Reduces intracellular ROS level. Plays a significant role in reduction of oxidative stress [29, 30].
9PON1149PON1 (paraoxonase 1) is a potent antioxidant and a major anti-atherosclerotic component of high-density lipoprotein [31].
10MT3142Metallothioneins (MTs) display in vitro oxyradical scavenging capacity, suggesting that they may specifically neutralize hydroxyl radicals. Metallothioneins and metallothionein-like proteins isolated from mouse brain act as neuroprotective agents by scavenging superoxide radicals [32, 33].
11PTGS2120Produces cyclooxygenase-II (COX-II) which has antioxidant activities [34].
12NF-κB2103NF-κB, an oxidative/inflammatory protein, is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, oxidized LDL, and bacterial or viral antigens [21].
13NFE2L256Nuclear respiratory factor 2 helps activate antioxidant responsive element regulated genes which contribute to the regulation of the cellular antioxidant defense systems [35].
14PTGS150Produces cyclooxygenase-I (COX-I) which has antioxidant activity [34].

DownGenesPercent change in gene expressionComments

1IL17A−1018This strongly suppressed cytokine can stimulate the expression of IL6 and cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX-2), as well as enhancing the production of nitric oxide (NO). High levels of this cytokine are associated with several chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and multiple sclerosis (NCBI GENE entry).
2TNF−115GHK suppresses this prooxidant TNF gene which inhibits the antioxidant IL18 [36].