Table 2: List of EO bearing plants studied for anticancer potential in in vitro models and major observations reported.

EO bearing plantsModel systemMajor findings/mechanism(s) reportedReference

Citrus  limettioides Colon cancer (SW480) cellsApoptosis via caspase-3 activation and inhibition of cox-2 and IL-6, inflammatory proteins[24]

Pulicaria  jaubertii Human breast (MCF-7) and liver (HepG2) cancer cell linesCytotoxicity[112]

Drimys  angustifolia Miers and D. brasiliensis Human bladder carcinoma (T24) and glioblastoma (U-138 MG) cell linesApoptosis[25]

Boswellia carterii  and  Commiphora pyracanthoides Human breast (MCF-7) and hepatocellular (HepG2) and cervical (HeLa), skin (HS-1) and small cell lung (A549) cancers cell linesCytotoxicity[113]

Cymbopogon  citratus and  C.  nardus Human breast cancer (MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (Vero) cell linesCytotoxicity[114]

Tarchonanthus  camphoratus Human embryonic kidney and hepatocellular carcinoma cellsCytotoxicity[26]

Salvia  officinalis  L. Human melanoma (A375, M14, and A2058) cell linesAntiproliferative activity[115]

Thymus  linearis and T.  serpyllum Human breast (MCF-7), hormone dependent prostate carcinoma (LNCaP) and fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cell linesAntiproliferative activity[90]

Porcelia  macrocarpa Murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastoma (U87), cervical carcinoma (HeLa), leukemia (HL-60), colon carcinoma (HCT), breast adenocarcinoma (SKBr), and melanoma (A2058); and non-tumorigenic (HFF) cell linesCytotoxicity[116]

Thymus  fallax Human colorectal cancer (DLD-1) and mouse fibroblast (L929) cell linesCytotoxic to cancer but not to normal fibroblast cells[117]

Achillea  wilhelmsii  C. KochHuman chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562), prostate adenocarcinoma (PC3), umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) and cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cell linesCytotoxic to cancer but not to normal HUVEC cells[118]

Ducrosia  anethifolia and D.  flabellifolia Human cancer (K562, LS180 and MCF-7) cell linesCytotoxicity[119]

Xylopia  frutescens Ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), bronchoalveolar lung (NCI-H358M) and metastatic prostate carcinoma (PC-3M) cell linesCytotoxicity[120]

Annona  muricata Human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell linesCytotoxicity[121]

Lippia  gracilis Mouse melanoma (B16-F10), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and chronic myelocytic leukemia (K562) cell linesG1 phase arrest and apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathway[22]

Cedrelopsis  grevei Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) cell linesCytotoxicity[122]

Libanotis  transcaucasica Human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa), colon adenocarcinoma (LS180), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and Raji (human B lymphoma) cell linesCytotoxicity[123]

Melissa  officinalis Human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell linesCytotoxicity[124]

Satureja  intermedia Human oesophagus squamous cell (KYSE30) and bladder carcinoma (5637) cell linesCytotoxicity[125]

Origanum  majorana H1299 and epirubicin-resistant H1299 cell linesCytotoxic and induces DNA damage[101]

Guatteria  pogonopus Ovarian adenocarcinoma (OVCAR-8), bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma (NCIH358M), and metastatic prostate carcinoma (PC-3M) cell linesCytotoxic[126]

Pyrolae  herba Human chondrosarcoma (SW1353) cellsAntitumour activity[66]

Thymus  revolutus Liver cancer (HepG2) cellsProoxidant and protective effects[127]

Origanum  onites L.5RP7 (c-H-ras transformed rat embryonic fibroblasts) cell linesApoptosis[128]

Capparis  spinosa L.Human colon carcinoma (HT-29) cell lineInhibition of cell proliferation via G2/M cell cycle arrest[129]

Artemisia campestris and Thymelaea hirsuta Colon cancer (HT-29) cellsAntitumour activity[27]

Lycopus  lucidus  Turcz. var. hirtus RegelHuman liver (Bel-7402 and HepG2), breast (MDA-MB-435S and ZR-75-30), cervix (HeLa) and human renal adenocarcinoma (ACHN) cell linesCytotoxicity [10]

Nigella  sativa Human epithelial (Hep-2) cell linesCytotoxicity [130]

Thymus  vulgaris Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) cellsCytotoxicity[131]

Aniba  rosaeodora Human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A431), epidermal keratinocytes (HEK001), normal primary epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and HaCaT cell linesApoptosis induction in selective manner[51]

Boswellia  sacra Human breast cancer (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231) and immortalized normal human breast (MCF10-2A) cell lineCytotoxic to cancer cells but not to normal cells[50]

Syzygium  aromaticum L Breast cancer (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), prostate cancer (DU-145), cervical cancer (HeLa), and Esophageal cancer (TE-13) cell linesCytotoxicity[132]

Murraya  koenigii MCF-7, P 388, and HeLa cell linesAntitumour activity[133]

Salvia  officinalis Breast cancer (MCF-7) and colon cancer (HCT-116) cell linesCytotoxicity[134]

Mentha  spicata  L., Zingiber  officinale, Citrus  limon Burm. f., C.  paradise Macf., Jasminum  grandiflora, lavender, Matricaria  chamomilla, Thymus  vulgaris, Rosa  damascena, and cinnamonHuman prostate carcinoma (PC-3), lung carcinoma (A549), and breast cancer (MCF-7) cell linesCytotoxicity[28]

Artemisia  lavandulaefolia Human oral epidermoid carcinoma (KB) cellsMitochondrial stress and caspase activation mediated apoptosis[23]

Laurus  nobilis, Origanum  syriacum, Origanum  vulgare, and Salvia  triloba Human breast (MCF7) adenocarcinoma cellsCytotoxicity[135]

Schinusmolle L. and Schinus  terebinthifolius RaddiHuman breast (MCF-7) cancer cellsCytotoxicity[136]

Ocimum  viride Human colorectal adenocarcinoma (COLO 205) cell lineTime and dose-dependent cytotoxicity[137]

Cinnamomum  zeylanicum Normal rat embryonic fibroblasts (F2408) and c-H-ras transformed rat embryonic fibroblasts (5RP7) cell linesCytotoxicity and apoptosis[138]

Citrus reticulate,  C.  aurantium,  C.  limon,  and  C.  aurantium Ehrlich ascites carcinoma resistant to Endoxan cellsAntitumour activity[139]

Morus  rotunbiloba  KoidzAfrican green monkey kidney (Vero) and human larynx epidermoid carcinoma (Hep2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW620) cell linesCytotoxicity[140]

Amomum  tsaoko Human liver carcinoma (HepG2 and Bel-7402), cervix carcinoma (HeLa), lung carcinoma (A549), gastric adenocarcinoma (SGC-7901), prostate cancer (PC-3), hepatocyte (HL-7702), and umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cell linesCytotoxicity to cancer cells but lesser effect on normal cell line[141]

Salvia  pisidica Hepatoma G2 (HepG2) and H1299 cell linesProtective effect against H2O2 induced toxicity[15]

Citrus  limon Human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cellsAntiproliferative activity[142]

Rosmarinus  officinalis Human breast cancer (MCF-7) and hormone dependent prostate carcinoma (LNCaP) cell linesAntiproliferative activity[143]

Hibiscus  cannabinus Ovarian cancer (CaOV3) and colon cancer (HT29) cell linesCytotoxicity and apoptosis[144]

Salvia  rubifolia  and  S.  bracteata Human melanoma (M14) cellsCytotoxicity[45]

Croton  regelianus Human leukemia (HL-60), melanoma (MDA-MB-435), brain (SF-295), and colon (HCT-8) cell linesCytotoxicity[145]

Citrus  aurantifolia Colon adenocarcinoma (NIH3T3 and SW-480) cellsApoptosis induction by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 elevation[146]

Stachys  cretica  ssp. vacillans  Rech. Fil., S. germanica  L., S.  hydrophila  Boiss., S.  nivea,  S.  palustris.  and  S.  spinosa,Amelanotic melanoma (C32) and renal cell adenocarcinoma (ACHN) cell linesAntiproliferative activity[147]

Cnidium  officinale and Ligusticum  chuanxion Mouse skin fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cellsPreventive effect against UVB-induced DNA damage and apoptosis[65]

Schefflera  heptaphylla Breast cancer (MCF-7), melanoma (A375), and liver cancer (HepG2) cell linesAnti-proliferative activity[148]

Lippia  alba Human cervix epithelioid carcinoma cells (HeLa) and African green monkey kidney (Vero) cell linesCytotoxic to HeLa but not to nontumorigenic Vero[149]

Piper  gaudichaudianum Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cells) cellsCytotoxicity[150]

Citrus  reticulate and Pelargonium graveolens Human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60 and NB4) cell linesAntiproliferative activity[151]

Boswellia  sp.Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (J82) and normal human urothelium primary (UROtsa) cell linesCytotoxic to carcinoma but not normal cell line[46]

Salvia  libanotica Isogenic colon cancer (HCT-116 p53+/+ and p53−/−) cell linesInhibitory activity[48]

Cinnamomum  osmophloeum Murine macrophage (RAW 264.7) and human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell linesCytotoxicity[152]

Eucalyptus  sideroxylon and Eucalyptus  torquata Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cell linesAntiproliferative activity[153]

Schinus  molle Mouse macrophage (774), mouse breast carcinoma (EMT6), mouse myoblast (C2C12) and human hepatoma (Hep3B and HepG2), bladder Carcinoma (ECV-304), and leukemic (K562) cell linesCytotoxicity[154]

Casearia  sylvestris Human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), monkey kidney (Vero) cell lines, and mice macrophagesAntitumour but less cytotoxic against Vero and Macrophages[37]

Curcuma  wenyujin Human hepatoma (HepG2) cell lineAnt-proliferative activity by induction of apoptosis[68]

Dictamnus  dasycarpus Human breast cancer (MCF-7, ZR-75-30 and MDA-MB-435S), liver carcinoma (Bel-7402 and HepG2), and renal adenocarcinoma (ACHN) cell linesAntiproliferative activity with more sensitivity towards breast cancer cells[155]

Salvia  officinalis, Sideritis  perfoliata, Satureja  thymbra, Laurus  nobilis, and Pistacia  palaestina Breast cancer (MCF-7), amelanotic melanoma (C32), renal cell adenocarcinoma (ACHN), and hormone dependent prostrate carcinoma (LNCaP) cell linesCytotoxic[156]

Juniperus  phoenicea Brain tumour (U251), lung carcinoma cell line (H460), liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2), breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7), and cervix carcinoma (HeLa)Cytotoxic effects[157]

Zanthoxylum  rhoifolium  LamHuman cervical carcinoma (HeLa), lung carcinoma (A549), colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29), monkey kidney (Vero), and mice macrophages cell linesCytotoxic to cancer cells but not cytotoxic to Vero and Macrophage cells[158]

Thymus  broussonetii Human ovarian adenocarcinoma IGR-OV1 parental OV1/P and its chemoresistant OV1/adriamycin (OV1/ADR), OV1/vincristine (OV1/VCR), and OV1/cisplatin (OV1/CDDP) cell linesAntitumour in the cancer cells resistant to chemotherapy[96]

Photinia  serrulata Human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), lung carcinoma (A-549), and liver carcinoma (Bel-7402) cell linesAnticancer activity[159]

Thymus  sp.Mastocytoma (P815) cell lineInhibitory effect with carvacrol showing most cytotoxic[88]

Neem  oilHuman (MCF-7) breast cancer cell linesSlow, nonapoptotic cell death[160]

Talauma  ovata,  Symphyopappus  itatiayensis, Myrciaria  floribunda,   Psidium  cattleianum, and Nectandra  megapotamica Breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), colon adenocarcinoma (KM-12), multiple myeloma (RPMI-8226), prostate carcinoma (PC-3), glioblastoma (SF-268), and lung carcinoma (NCI-H460) cell linesCytotoxicity[161]

O.  sanctum,  C.  citratus, Alpiniaofficinarum, L.  angustifolia,  Vetiveria  zizanioides, Z. montanum,  P.  nigrum,  C.  nardus,  C.  longa,  O.  basilicum,  C.  hystrix,  P.  betel,  Albizia lebbeck,  O.  americanum,  M.  spicata, and Psidium guajava Human mouth epidermal carcinoma (KB) and murine leukemia (P388) cell linesAntiproliferative activity[162]

Pistacia  lentiscus  var.  chia K562 and B16 cellsInhibition of growth, survival, and angiogenesis[163]

Citrus  limon,  C.  medica,  C.  sinsensis Human cervix carcinoma (Hela) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell linesCytotoxicity[164]

Eugenia  caryophyllata Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60), histiocytic lymphoma (U-937), hepatoma (HepG2), human colon cancer (SNU-C5), and Lewis mouse lung carcinoma (3LL)ROS mediated apoptosis[165]

Zanthoxylum  schinifolium Human Hepatoma Cells (HepG2)Apoptosis induction via ROS[52]

Myrica  gale Human lung carcinoma (A549) and colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1)Cytotoxicity[166]

Abies  balsamea MCF-7, PC-3, A549, DLD-1, M4BEU, and CT-26Antitumour activity induced by ROS[167]

Lavandula  stoechas  ssp.  stoechas Human epidermoid carcinoma (KB), human breast cancer (BC1), lung cancer (LU1), colon cancer (COL-2), drug-resistant KB (KB-V), mouse leukemia (P-388), hormone-dependent human prostate cancer (LNCaP), and rat glioma (ASK) cell linesVariable cytotoxicity to all except ASK cell line[168]