Glioprotective Effects of Ashwagandha Leaf Extract against Lead Induced Toxicity
ASH-WEX protects against lead induced toxicity. (a) Relative cell viability of C6 glioma cells after lead induced toxicity as assessed by MTT assay. C6 cells were grown and pretreated with ASH-WEX (0.1%) 24 hours before exposure to lead nitrate (25–400 μM) and grown for 48–72 h. Lead nitrate significantly reduced the viable cells at 50 μM and higher concentrations. ASH-WEX treated cells were significantly higher in viability as compared to respective lead nitrate treated groups (in 50, 100, and 200 μM). Data are representative of four different experiments and are expressed as mean ± SEM. (b) Representative phase contrast pictures of control (C), control with ASH-WEX (0.1%) pretreatment (CA), lead nitrate 200 μM (LN), and lead nitrate after pretreatment with ASH-WEX (LN + AS) treatment. Images were captured using Nikon TE-2000 microscope. There was a significant difference in the cell number and morphology in lead nitrate treated cells as compared to control cells which appeared to be noramlized by ASH-WEX pretreatment in LN + AS group. (c) Cell death observed by Hoechst 33258 staining. After the cells were treated with lead nitrate and ASH-WEX, Hoechst 33258 staining was used to observe the morphological changes of cell nucleus such as condensation of chromatin and nuclear fragmentations and higher intensity of stain were found clearly in lead nitrate treated group as compared to control and LN + AS group.
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