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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 206082, 10 pages
Research Article

Testing of Visual Field with Virtual Reality Goggles in Manual and Visual Grasp Modes

1BioFormatix, Inc., P.O. Box 721450, San Diego, CA 92172, USA
2Department of Ophthalmology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA
3Doheny Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA 91105, USA

Received 17 February 2014; Accepted 1 May 2014; Published 23 June 2014

Academic Editor: Sergio Claudio Saccà

Copyright © 2014 Dariusz Wroblewski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye) that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1) manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2) visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1) minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2) the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3) a systematic shift (of 4–6 dB) to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients’ acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.