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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 261409, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/261409
Review Article

Impact of Statins on Cognitive Deficits in Adult Male Rodents after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review

1Institute of Integrated Medicine, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, No. 87 Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
2Key Laboratory of Chinese Gan of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changsha 410008, China
3Institute of Integrated Medicine, Hunan Cancer Hospital, Changsha 410013, China
4The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China

Received 21 May 2014; Accepted 12 July 2014; Published 23 July 2014

Academic Editor: Konstantinos P. Economopoulos

Copyright © 2014 Weijun Peng et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The efficacy of statin treatment on cognitive decline is controversial, and the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has yet to be investigated. Therefore, we systematically reviewed the effect of statins on cognitive deficits in adult male rodents after TBI. After identifying eligible studies by searching four electronic databases on February 28, 2014, we assessed study quality, evaluated the efficacy of statin treatment, and performed stratified metaregression and metaregression to assess the influence of study design on statin efficacy. Eleven studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria from a total of 183 publications. The overall methodological quality of these studies was poor. Meta-analysis showed that statins exert statistically significant positive effects on cognitive performance after TBI. Stratified analysis showed that atorvastatin has the greatest effect on acquisition memory, simvastatin has the greatest effect on retention memory, and statin effects on acquisition memory are higher in closed head injury models. Metaregression analysis further showed that that animal species, study quality, and anesthetic agent impact statin effects on retention memory. We conclude that statins might reduce cognitive deficits after TBI. However, additional well-designed and well-reported animal studies are needed to inform further clinical study.