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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 267189, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/267189
Research Article

High Potential Source for Biomass Degradation Enzyme Discovery and Environmental Aspects Revealed through Metagenomics of Indian Buffalo Rumen

1Department of Animal Biotechnology, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat 388001, India
2Xcelris Genomics Xcelris Labs Ltd, Old Premchandnagar Road, Opp. Satyagrah Chhavani, Bodakdev, Ahmedabad 380054, India
3Department of Animal Nutrition, Livestock Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Gujarat 385506, India

Received 27 February 2014; Revised 4 June 2014; Accepted 5 June 2014; Published 17 July 2014

Academic Editor: Neelu Nawani

Copyright © 2014 K. M. Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The complex microbiomes of the rumen functions as an effective system for plant cell wall degradation, and biomass utilization provide genetic resource for degrading microbial enzymes that could be used in the production of biofuel. Therefore the buffalo rumen microbiota was surveyed using shot gun sequencing. This metagenomic sequencing generated 3.9 GB of sequences and data were assembled into 137270 contiguous sequences (contigs). We identified potential 2614 contigs encoding biomass degrading enzymes including glycoside hydrolases (GH: 1943 contigs), carbohydrate binding module (CBM: 23 contigs), glycosyl transferase (GT: 373 contigs), carbohydrate esterases (CE: 259 contigs), and polysaccharide lyases (PE: 16 contigs). The hierarchical clustering of buffalo metagenomes demonstrated the similarities and dissimilarity in microbial community structures and functional capacity. This demonstrates that buffalo rumen microbiome was considerably enriched in functional genes involved in polysaccharide degradation with great prospects to obtain new molecules that may be applied in the biofuel industry.