BioMed Research International / 2014 / Article / Fig 4

Review Article

Signalling Molecules in the Urothelium

Figure 4

Schematic representation of adenosine release and its effects in the urinary bladder wall. Stretch induces the release of adenosine from luminal and basolateral surfaces of urothelial cells. Extracellular adenosine targets A1 receptors on the apical plasma membrane and A2a, A2b, and A3 receptors on the basolateral plasma membrane of the urothelial cells and causes inhibition of ATP release from urothelial cells (1). Adenosine can also modulate afferent nerve activity (2). Contraction of smooth muscle cell is influenced by adenosine, presumably via A2b receptors (3).
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