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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014, Article ID 308316, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/308316
Review Article

Prophylaxis of Contrast-Induced Nephrotoxicity

Division of Nephrology, Internal Medicine I, University of Ulm, Albert-Einstein Allee 23, 89081 Ulm, Germany

Received 19 November 2013; Revised 18 February 2014; Accepted 5 March 2014; Published 10 April 2014

Academic Editor: Michele Andreucci

Copyright © 2014 Ulla Ludwig and Frieder Keller. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) is a form of acute kidney injury that follows intravascular contrast media exposure. CIN may be preventable because its risk factors are well established and the timing of renal insult is commonly known in advance. However, contrast-induced nephrotoxicity is still the third leading cause of iatrogenic renal failure. This important complication accounts up to 10% of acute renal failure cases in hospitalized patients and it is associated with increased short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. Prolonged hospitalization follows and overall increases healthcare resource utilization. This paper will discuss the various prophylactic procedures tested in clinical trials.