Table 1: Principal characteristics of nondemented healthy controls, MCI/MCI, MCI/LOAD, and LOAD patients.

Controls ( )MCI/MCI ( )MCI/LOAD ( )LOAD ( )

Age (years)
Female gender (%)72.0a,b54.851.770.1a,b
Formal education (years)
MMSE score (/30)
GDS (/15)
Hypertension (%)42.155.15464.1c
Diabetes (%)10.1a,b20.124.213.7a,b
CVD (%)9.5a,b25.625.116.7a,b
Smoking (%)

Continuous variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation. MCI/MCI: stable MCI patients; MCI/LOAD: MCI patients converted to LOAD. CVD: cardiovascular disease; MMSE: Mini Mental State Examination; GDS: Global Deterioration Scale.
versus MCI/MCI; versus MCI/LOAD; versus controls.