Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 312142, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/312142
Review Article

GRE T2-Weighted MRI: Principles and Clinical Applications

Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Affiliated Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, Sichuan 637000, China

Received 10 February 2014; Accepted 19 March 2014; Published 16 April 2014

Academic Editor: Sophie Laurent

Copyright © 2014 Meng Yue Tang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. J. Werring, D. W. Frazer, L. J. Coward et al., “Cognitive dysfunction in patients with cerebral microbleeds on T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI,” Brain, vol. 127, part 10, pp. 2265–2275, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. T. C. Mamisch, T. Hughes, T. J. Mosher et al., “T2 star relaxation times for assessment of articular cartilage at 3 T: a feasibility study,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 287–292, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. W. M. van der Flier and C. Cordonnier, “Microbleeds in vascular dementia: clinical aspects,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 853–857, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. A. Charidimou, H. R. Jäger, and D. J. Werring, “Cerebral microbleed detection and mapping: principles, methodological aspects and rationale in vascular dementia,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 47, no. 11, pp. 843–852, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. M. C. V. Hernández, L. C. Maconick, E. M. Tan, and J. M. Wardlaw, “Identification of mineral deposits in the brain on radiological images: a systematic review,” European Radiology, vol. 22, no. 11, pp. 2371–2381, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. G. B. Chavhan, P. S. Babyn, B. Thomas, M. M. Shroff, and E. Mark Haacke, “Principles, techniques, and applications of T2*-based MR imaging and its special applications,” Radiographics, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 1433–1449, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. E. Haacke, R. Brown, M. Thompson, and R. Venkatesan, MRI Physical Principles and Sequence Design, Wiley-Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1999.
  8. J. Y. Liu, J. Ding, D. Lin et al., “T2*MRI of minimal hepatic encephalopathy and cognitive correlates in vivo,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 179–186, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. B. Henninger, C. Kremser, S. Rauch et al., “Evaluation of liver fat in the presence of iron with MRI using T2* correction: a clinical approach,” European Radiology, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1643–1649, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. A. Kolnagou, K. Natsiopoulos, M. Kleanthous, A. Ioannou, and G. J. Kontoghiorghes, “Liver iron and serum ferritin levels are misleading for estimating cardiac, pancreatic, splenic and total body iron load in thalassemia patients: factors influencing the heterogenic distribution of excess storage iron in organs as identified by MRI T2*,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 48–56, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. M. Barzin, M. Kowsarian, S. Akhlaghpoor, R. Jalalian, and M. Taremi, “Correlation of cardiac MRI T2* with echocardiography in thalassemia major,” European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 254–260, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. Z. C. Lin, L. Zhai, Y. P. Chne, and X. L. Zhang, “Clinical application of T2*GRE multiple echo sequence on articular cartilage disease in the knee,” Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1095–1100, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  13. A. Kolnagou, Y. Michaelides, C. N. Kontoghiorghe, and G. J. Kontoghiorghes, “he importance of spleen, spleen iron, and splenectomy for determining total body iron load, ferrikinetics, and iron toxicity in thalassemia major patients,” Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. X. D. Wu, Y. F. Jing, F. Y. Pei et al., “Value of magnetic resonance imaging T2* tests in detecting heart and liver iron overload in patients with beta-thalassemia major,” Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 249–252, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  15. R. Origa, F. Danjou, S. Cossa et al., “Impact of heart magnetic resonance imaging on chelation choices, compliance with treatment and risk of heart disease in patients with thalassaemia major,” The British Journal of Haematology, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 400–403, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. M. Queiroz-Andrade, R. Blasbalg, C. D. Ortega et al., “MR imaging findings of iron overload,” Radiographics, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1575–1589, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Qin, W. Zhu, C. Zhan et al., “Investigation on positive correlation of increased brain iron deposition with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease by using quantitative MR R2' mapping,” Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology—Medical Science, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 578–585, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. McNeill, D. Birchall, S. J. Hayflick et al., “T2* and FSE MRI distinguishes four subtypes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 18, pp. 1614–1619, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Mihai, X. He, X. Zhang et al., “Design and rationale for the study of changes in iron and atherosclerosis risk in perimenopause,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, vol. 2, article 152, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  20. V. Russo, A. Rago, B. Pannone et al., “Early electrocardiographic evaluation of atrial fibrillation risk in beta-thalassemia major patients,” International Journal of Hematology, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 446–451, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. Y. M. Yang, X. Feng, L. K. Yin, C. C. Li, J. Jia, and Z. G. Du, “Comparison of USPIO-enhanced MRI and Gd-DTPA enhancement during the subacute stage of focal cerebral ischemia in rats,” Acta Radiologica, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. Y. Z. Wadghiri, J. Li, J. Wang et al., “Detection of amyloid plaques targeted by bifunctional USPIO in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice using magnetic resonance microimaging,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e57097, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. Y. Hoshino, M. Odaka, and K. Hirata, “Pontine hemorrhage in a patient with type 1 renal tubular acidosis associated with osmotic demyelination syndrome,” Brain and Nerve, vol. 60, no. 9, pp. 1061–1065, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. M. F. Poels, M. W. Vernooij, M. A. Ikram et al., “Prevalence and risk factors of cerebral microbleeds: an update of the rotterdam scan study,” Stroke, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. S103–S106, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Akoudad, M. A. Ikram, P. J. Koudstaal, A. Hofman, A. van der Lugt, and M. W. Vernooij, “Cerebral microbleeds and the risk of mortality in the general population,” European Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 815–821, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. S. M. Greenberg, M. W. Vernooij, C. Cordonnier et al., “Cerebral microbleeds: a guide to detection and interpretation,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 165–174, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. G. Bradley Jr., “MR appearance of hemorrhage in the brain,” Radiology, vol. 189, no. 1, pp. 15–26, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. W. Atlas, A. S. Mark, R. I. Grossman, and J. M. Gomori, “Intracranial hemorrhage: gradient-echo MR imaging at 1.5 T. Comparison with spin-echo imaging and clinical applications,” Radiology, vol. 168, no. 3, pp. 803–807, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Weingarten, R. D. Zimmerman, P. T. Cahill, and M. D. F. Deck, “Detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage on MR imaging: ineffectiveness of prolonged interecho interval pulse sequences,” The American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 475–479, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. L. A. Hayman, J. J. Pagani, J. B. Kirkpatrick, and V. C. Hinck, “Pathophysiology of acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage: applications to MR imaging,” The American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 135–139, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. H. J. Kuijf, M. Brundel, J. de Bresser et al., “Semi-automated detection of cerebral microbleeds on 3.0 T MR images,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 6, Article ID e66610, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. T. Morioka, S. Nishio, F. Mihara et al., “Usefulness of T2* weighted magnetic resonance image in the diagnosis of head injury on chronic stage,” Brain and Nerve, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 703–708, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. R. Patel, R. R. Edelman, and S. Warach, “Detection of hyperacute primary intraparenchymal hemorrhage by magnetic resonance imaging,” Stroke, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 2321–2324, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. Kaya, A. Dinçer, M. E. Yildiz, M. O. Çizmeli, and C. Erzen, “Acute ischemic infarction defined by a region of multiple hypointense vessels on gradient-echo T2* MR imaging at 3 T,” The American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 1227–1232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. R. Edelman, K. Johnson, and R. Buxton, “MR of hemorrhage: a new approach,” The American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 751–756, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. C. S. Kidwell, J. L. Saver, J. P. Villablanca et al., “Magnetic resonance imaging detection of microbleeds before thrombolysis: an emerging application,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 95–98, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. D. Schellinger, O. Jansen, J. B. Fiebach, W. Hacke, and K. Sartor, “A standardized MRI stroke protocol: comparison with CT in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 765–768, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. B. Fiebach, P. D. Schellinger, A. Gass et al., “Stroke magnetic resonance imaging is accurate in hyperacute intracerebral hemorrhage: a multicenter study on the validity of stroke imaging,” Stroke, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 502–506, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. I. Zia, N. R. Ghugre, K. A. Connelly et al., “Characterizing myocardial edema and hemorrhage using quantitative T2 and T2* mapping at multiple time intervals post ST-segment elevation myocardialinfarction,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Imaging, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 566–572, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. A. M. Ellingson, H. Mehta, D. W. Polly, J. Ellermann, and D. J. Nuckley, “Disc degeneration assessed by quantitative T2* (T2 star) correlated with functional lumbar mechanics,” Spine, vol. 38, no. 24, pp. E1533–E1540, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. H. Takashima, T. Takebayashi, M. Yoshimoto et al., “Correlation between T2 relaxation time and intervertebral disk degeneration,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 163–167, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. H. Walker and D. G. Anderson, “Molecular basis of intervertebral disc degeneration,” Spine Journal, vol. 4, no. 6, supplement, pp. 158S–166S, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Perry, V. Haughton, P. A. Anderson, Y. Wu, J. Fine, and C. Mistretta, “The value of T2 relaxation times to characterize lumbar intervertebral disks: preliminary results,” The American Journal of Neuroradiology, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 337–342, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Hoppe, S. Quirbach, T. C. Mamisch, F. G. Krause, S. Werlen, and L. M. Benneker, “Axial T2* mapping in intervertebral discs: a new technique for assessment of intervertebral disc degeneration,” European Radiology, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 2013–2019, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. P. H. Tsai, H. S. Lee, T. Y. Siow et al., “Sequential change in T2* values of cartilage, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow in a rat model of knee osteoarthritis,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 10, Article ID e76658, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  46. G. H. Welsch, S. Trattnig, T. Paternostro-Sluga et al., “Parametric T2 and T2* mapping techniques to visualize intervertebral disc degeneration in patients with low back pain: initial results on the clinical use of 3.0 Tesla MRI,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 543–551, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. Y. Qian, A. A. Williams, C. R. Chu, and F. E. Boada, “Multicomponent T2* mapping of knee cartilage: technical feasibility ex vivo,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 1426–1431, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. V. Mlynárik, S. Trattnig, M. Huber, A. Zembsch, and H. Imhof, “The role of relaxation times in monitoring proteoglycan depletion in articular cartilage,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 497–502, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  49. F. G. Krause, G. Klammer, L. M. Benneker, S. Werlen, T. C. Mamisch, and M. Weber, “Biochemical T2* MR quantification of ankle arthrosis in pes cavovarus,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1562–1568, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. B. Bittersohl, F. R. Miese, C. Dekkers et al., “T2* mapping and delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in cartilage (dGEMRIC) of glenofhumeral cartilage in asymptomatic volunteers at 3 T,” European Radiology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 1367–1374, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. Q. Luo, H. Leng, X. Wang, Y. Zhou, and Q. Rong, “The role of water and mineral-collagen interfacial bonding on microdamage progression in bone,” Journal of Orthopaedic Research, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 217–223, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. S. Mori, “SSBT (severely suppressed bone turnover),” Clinical Calcium, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 365–370, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  53. S. Mori, “Morphological analysis of bone dynamics and metabolic bone disease. Pathophisiology of microdamage,” Clinical Calcium, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 559–565, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Mori, “Bone fracture and the healing mechanisms. Microdamage and microfracture,” Clinical Calcium, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 699–703, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. H. Yoshioka, T. Tanaka, T. Ueno et al., “High-resolution MR imaging of the proximal zone of the lunotriquetral ligament with a microscopy coil,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 288–294, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Sasaki, Y. Saito, H. Yodono et al., “MR diagnosis of internal derangement of the knee by SE T1 and GRE T2* weighted images: evaluation of 300 arthroscopically proven knees,” Nippon Acta Radiologica, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 572–577, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. M. F. Koff, P. Shah, S. Pownder et al., “Correlation of meniscal T2* with multiphoton microscopy, and change of articular cartilage T2 in an ovine model of meniscal repair,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1083–1091, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. D. Stelzeneder, A. A. Shetty, S. J. Kim et al., “Repair tissue quality after arthroscopic autologous collagen-induced chondrogenesis (ACIC) assessed via T2* mapping,” Skeletal Radiology, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1657–1664, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. L. Østergaard, “Principles of cerebral perfusion imaging by bolus tracking,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 710–717, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. K. Kuhl, H. Bieling, J. Gieseke et al., “Breast neoplasms: T2* susceptibility-contrast, first-pass perfusion MR imaging,” Radiology, vol. 202, no. 1, pp. 87–95, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. E. Unger, O. Needleman, P. Cullis, and C. Tilcock, “Gadolinium-DTPA liposomes as a potential MRI contrast agent. Work in progress,” Investigative Radiology, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 928–932, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. G. Johnson, S. G. Wetzel, S. Cha, J. Babb, and P. S. Tofts, “Measuring blood volume and vascular transfer constant from dynamic, T2*-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI,” Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 961–968, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. L. Pauling and C. D. Coryell, “The magnetic properties and structure of hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and carbonmon-oxyhemoglobin,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 210–216, 1936. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  64. D. Zacà, J. Jovicich, S. R. Nadar, J. T. Voyvodic, and J. J. Pillai, “Cerebrovascular reactivity mapping in patients with low grade gliomas undergoing presurgical sensorimotor mapping with BOLD fMRI,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  65. T. Kim, T. Murakami, M. Hori, H. Onishi, K. Tomoda, and H. Nakamura, “Effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on tumor-to-liver contrast at T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI: comparison between 3.0 T and 1.5 T MR systems,” Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 595–600, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. A. N. Tong, X. Y. Lv, P. Yan, and Y. M. Wang, “Magnetic resonance T2*-weighted study of U87 MG glioma tumors and its relationship between tumor hypoxia and VEGF expression,” CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 201–203, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar