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BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 348647, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/348647
Research Article

Propolis Varnish: Antimicrobial Properties against Cariogenic Bacteria, Cytotoxicity, and Sustained-Release Profile

1Department of Paediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Campus Pampulha, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Campus Pampulha, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Campus Pampulha, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4Biomedical Engineering Institute (INEB), Porto University and Faculty of Engineering, DEMM, Porto University, Porto, Portugal
5Department of Oral Surgery and Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Campus Pampulha, Avenida Presidente Antônio Carlos 6627, 31.270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 23 February 2014; Revised 6 April 2014; Accepted 22 April 2014; Published 13 May 2014

Academic Editor: Kota V. Ramana

Copyright © 2014 Mariana P. De Luca et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Varnishes are preparations that differ in the polymeric matrix and therapeutical agents. In dentistry they are used to prevent caries. In this study we developed a propolis varnish, considering propolis properties against cariogenic bacteria. To a chitosan polymeric base (CHV) was added ethanolic propolis extract in different concentrations: PV1 (5%), PV2 (10%), and PV3 (15%). Antimicrobial activity was carried out against Streptococcus mutans (SM), Streptococcus sanguinis (SG), Streptococcus salivarius (SS), and Lactobacillus casei (LC) through agar diffusion method. The three propolis concentrations incorporated were effective in inhibiting the growth of all microorganisms, but without significant difference between the zones of inhibition observed. Cytotoxicity assay was done by MTT method. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test. None of the varnishes were cytotoxic, keeping 80% of viable cells, while CHV allowed cellular proliferation (120%). Sustained-release test was carried out by applying 40 μL of each varnish in the buccal surface of bovine teeth and kept in an ethanol/water solution removed in regular times. According to the “independent model approach,” the release profiles were distinct from each varnish and the most prolonged was PV3 (8 weeks). Varnish formulations had satisfactory antimicrobial activity against cariogenic bacteria and have a low cytotoxicity (<50%).